top of page


This is the list of source material I used in researching Zero Hour: A History of 9/11.

Also, here is a list of what I consider to be the essential books about 9/11.


ABC News. "Terrorist's Letter Snagged By U.S." October 7, 2005.

Kelli Arena. “Sources: Egyptian gets $27 million for Mohammed's arrest tip” CNN, March 12, 2003.

Associated Press. “500 Are Believed Dead as Tanzania Ferry Sinks in Lake Victoria.” May 22, 1996.

Associated Press. "Property records suggest another alias for bin Laden aide." May 5, 2011.

James Astill. “Osama: the Sudan years.” The Guardian, October 17, 2001.

Abdul Bari Atwan. “Inside Osama’s mountain lair.” The Guardian, November 12, 2001.

Australian Broadcasting Corporation. “‘Carlos the Jackal’ sentenced to third life term for 1974 attack on Paris shopping arcade.” March 28, 2017.

Michael Battles. “25 Years Later: Remembering Khobar Towers.” U.S. Air Force. June 25, 2021.

BBC News. “Sunnis and Shia in the Middle East.” December 19, 2013.

BBC News. “What is Sharia and how is it applied?” May 7, 2014.

BBC News. "Surviving the 2005 suicide bombings on Jordan hotels." November 9, 2015.

BBC News. “Chechnya profile – Timeline.” January 17, 2018.

BBC News. “Lake Victoria Tanzania ferry disaster: Survivor found in air pocket.” September 22, 2018.

Daniel Benjamin and Steven Simon. “The New Face of Terrorism.” New York Times, January 4, 2000.

Peter Bergen. “Five myths about Osama bin Laden.” Washington Post, May 6, 2011.
Peter Bergen. “The cleric who altered the course of modern history.” CNN, February 19, 2017.

Peter Bergen. “The woman who was the first to warn about Osama bin Laden.” CNN, August 3, 2021.

Richard Bernstein. “Questioning Focuses on One Defendant.” New York Times, November 11, 1993.

Richard Bernstein. “Explosion at the Twin Towers; 4 Are Convicted in Bombing at the World Trade Center That Killed 6, Stunned U.S.” New York Times, March 5, 1994.

Preeti Bhattacharji. “Chechen Terrorism (Russia, Chechnya, Separatist),” Council on Foreign Relations. April 8, 2010.
Barbara Bodine. “9/11 Miniseries Is Bunk.” Los Angeles Times, September 8, 2006.

Greg Botelho. “Sudanese Islamist leader, bin Laden ally Hassan al-Turabi dies.” CNN, March 5, 2016.

Mark Bowden. “The Legacy of Black Hawk Down.” Smithsonian Magazine, January/February 2019.

F. Brinley Bruton and Courtney Kube. “Suspected 9/11 Recruiter Mohammed Haymar Zammar captured in Syria,” NBC News, April 19, 2018.

The Business Standard. “Journalist who interviewed Osama bin Laden thrice, and told the tale.” November 2, 2020.

Daniel L. Byman. “What Zarqawi’s Death Means for the Insurgency.” Brookings Institution, June 8, 2006.

CBS News. "Desert One: Inside the failed 1980 hostage rescue in Iran." August 16, 2020.

Amos Chapple. “‘Welcome to Hell, Part II’: The Second Chechen War.” Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, October 1, 2019.

CNN. “Khalid Sheikh Mohammed Fast Facts.” Updated December 21, 2022.

CNN. “U.S. missiles pound targets in Afghanistan, Sudan.” August 21, 1998.
CNN. “Rescuers search for life in rubble of Nairobi bomb attack.” August 8, 1998.
CNN. “Bush acknowledges 1976 DUI charge.” November 2, 2000.
CNN. “Suspect in USS Cole bombing kills self in Yemen.” February 14, 2002.

CNN. “Pakistani man executed for CIA killings.” November 15, 2002.

CNN. "Pentagon: Saddam's sons killed in raid." July 22, 2003.

CNN. “Jordan: Embassy bombers ‘cowards’” August 7, 2003.

CNN. “U.N. attack branded ‘ruthless’” August 19, 2003.

CNN. "Al Qaeda-linked group takes credit for Saudi attack." December 7, 2004.

CNN. "Transcript: Confession by accused Jordan bomber." November 13, 2005.

CNN. "'Bomber confession' shocks Jordan." November 14, 2005.

CNN. “Al-Zawahiri: Egyptian militant group joins al Qaeda.” August 5, 2006.

CNN. “Osama bin Laden: Fast Facts.” April 27, 2021.

CNN. “Spain Train Bombings Fast Facts.” Updated February 21, 2023.

CNN exit poll, 2004 presidential election
Council on Foreign Relations. “The Iraq War, 2003-2011.”

Council on Foreign Relations. “The U.S. War in Afghanistan, 1999-2020.”
Council on Foreign Relations. “The Sunni-Shia Divide.”

Michael Daly. "Bin Laden's Life on the Run, Witnessed by Al Qaeda Child Bride." Daily Beast, July 11, 2017.

Bette Dam. “The Secret Life of Mullah Omar,” Zomia Center, 2019.
Robert M. Danin. “Remembering the Hama Massacre.” Council on Foreign Relations, February 2, 2012.
Anusuya Datta. “19 years to 9/11: Satellite images that captured the horrors.” Geospatial World, September 11, 2020.

Karin Davies. “Ferry Disaster Survivors Blame Crew For Overcrowding.” Associated Press, May 23, 1996.
Shane Drennan. “Constructing Takfir.” CTC Sentinel, June 2008, Vol 1, Issue 7.
Richard L. Eldredge. “Where are they now? CNN’s Boys of Baghdad.” Atlanta Magazine. March 18, 2015.

Richard Engel. “Sadat’s Assassination Plotter Remains Unrepentant.” NBC News, July 5, 2011.

David Ensor. “Drone may have spotted bin Laden in 2000.” CNN. March 17, 2004.

David Ensor. "Al Qaeda letter called 'chilling.'" CNN. October 12, 2005.

Larisa Epatko. "Then and Now: Iraq's 'Blackwater Bridge.'" PBS Newshour. August 20, 2010.

Richard Ernsberger, Jr. "1983 Beirut barracks bombing: ‘The BLT Building is gone!’" HistoryNet, October 23, 2019.
William E. Farrell. “5 Sadat Assassins Executed in Egypt.” New York Times, April 16, 1982.
Hassan M. Fattah and Michael Slackman. "3 Hotels Bombed in Jordan; At Least 57 Die." New York Times. November 10, 2005

Federation of American Scientists. “al-Gama’at al-Islamiyya.” May 3, 2004.
Federation of American Scientists. “al-Jihad.” May 3, 2004.

Federation of American Scientists. “The Bin Ladin Cell Phone Leak.” Secrecy News, Volume 2004, Issue No. 72. August 3, 2004.

Peter Finn, Joby Warrick and Julie Tate. “9/11 planner is recast as key asset for CIA.” Washington Post, August 29, 2009.

Robert Fisk. “Anti-Soviet warrior puts his army on the road to peace.” The Independent, December 6, 1993.

Robert Fisk. “Arab rebel leaders warns the British: ‘Get out of the Gulf.’” The Independent, July 10, 1996.
Robert Fisk. “Muslim leaders warns of a new assault on US forces.” The Independent, March 22, 1997.
Robert Fisk. “Osama bin Laden: The godfather of terror?” The Independent, September 15, 2001.
Robert Fisk. “A close encounter with the man who shook the world.” The Independent. October 23, 2011.

Tommy Franks. “War of Words,” New York Times, October 19, 2004.

Joseph P. Fried. “Case of Sheik and 9 Others Is Delivered To the Jury.” New York Times, September 24, 1995.
Joseph P. Fried. “The Terror Conspiracy: The Overview; Sheik And 9 Followers Guilty Of A Conspiracy Of Terrorism.” New York Times. October 2, 1995.
Joseph P. Fried. “Sheikh Sentenced to Life in Prison in Bombing Plot.” New York Times, January 18, 1996.
Joseph P. Fried. “Kevin Thomas Duffy, U.S. Judge in Terrorism Cases, Dies at 87.” New York Times, April 1, 2020.

Christopher J. Fuller. “The Origins of the Drone Program.” Lawfare, February 18, 2018.

Kathy Gannon. "Bin Laden's trusted confidante identified." Associated Press, June 1, 2011.

Jeffrey Gettleman. "Enraged Mob in Falluja Kills 4 American Contractors." New York Times. March 31, 2004.

Mohammad Ghazal. "10 Years after Amman bombings, war on terror 'remains our war.'" Jordan Times. November 9, 2015.

Malcolm Gladwell. “N.Y. Bomb Plotters Sentenced to Long Terms.” Washington Post, January 18, 1996. “BGM-109 Tomahawk – Operational Use.” “FIM-92A Stinger Weapons System: RMP & Basic.”
Adam Goldman and Kimberly Dozier. "Arrested U.S. official is actually CIA contractor." Associated Press, February 21, 2011.

Doug Gross. "Twitter user unknowingly reported bin Laden attack." CNN, May 2, 2011.

Michael Grunwald and Vernon Loeb. "Charges Filed Against bin Laden." Washington Post. November 5, 1998.

The Guardian. "Timeline: The Al Qaeda Tapes.",12643,839823,00.html

Rohan Gunaratna and Aviv Oreg, (2010) “Al Qaeda's Organizational Structure and its Evolution,” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 33: 12, 1043 — 1078.
Clyde Haberman. “Despite Verdict, Kahane’s Son Says Defendant Deserves Death.” New York Times, December 23, 1991.

Ashrad Abdul Hamid. “Egypt puts key members of ‘al-Jama’a al-Islamiyya’ on terror list.” Al-Arabiya News, November 11, 2018.

Paul Hamilos and Mark Tran. “21 guilty, seven cleared over Madrid train bombings.” The Guardian, October 31, 2007.

Asad Hashim. "Leaked report shows Bin Laden's 'hidden life.'" Al Jazeera. July 8, 2013.

Tore Refslund Hamming. “Al Qaeda After Ayman al-Zawahiri.” Lawfare, April 11, 2021.
Andrew Higgins. “The War That Continues to Shape Russia, 25 Years Later.” New York Times, December 10, 2019.

History Channel. “Terrorists bomb trains in Madrid.” February 9, 2010.

History Channel. “Russian forces enter Chechnya.” July 20, 2010.

History Channel. “9/11 Timeline.” June 21, 2011.
Phil Hirschkorn. “Jury hears day-by-day account of embassy bombings.” CNN. May 2, 2001.

Zahid Hussain. "Investigators track bin Laden's couriers." Wall Street Journal. June 1, 2011.

InfoWorld. “Toshiba cuts prices of all notebook lines.” May 2, 1994. Page 33.

Irish Times, “Bin Laden’s deputy killed by US.” November 17, 2001.

Bart Jansen. “10 worst ferry disasters worldwide.” USA Today, April 16, 2014.

Douglas Jehl. “C.I.A. Officers Played Role In Sheik Visas.” New York Times, July 22, 1993.

David Johnston. “How the F.B.I. Got Its Man, Half the World Away.” New York Times, June 19, 1997.

Randy Kennedy. “Pleas for Mercy, Statements of Defiance.” New York Times, January 18, 1996.

Glenn Kessler. “File the Bin Laden Phone Leak Under ‘Urban Myths.’” Washington Post, December 22, 2005.


Glenn Kessler. “Bill Clinton and the missed opportunities to kill Osama bin Laden.” Washington Post, February 16, 2016.

Glenn Kessler. “Was Khalid Sheikh Mohammed ‘waterboarded’ 183 times?” Washington Post, February 6, 2017.

Glenn Kessler. “The zombie claim that won’t die: The media exposed bin Laden’s phone.” Washington Post, August 2, 2018.

Glenn Kessler. "The Iraq War and WMDs: An intelligence failure or White House spin?" Washington Post. March 22, 2019.

Azmat Khan. “Slideshow: An American’s Path to the Mumbai Attacks.” PBS Frontline, November 22, 2011.
Azmat Khan. “New Evidence of Pakistan’s Role in the Mumbai Attacks?” PBS Frontline, June 28, 2012.

Sumera Khan. "Two years on: Abottabad report remains out of sight." The Express Tribune. May 3, 2013.

Zarar Khan. “Hamid Gul dies at 78; former Pakistan intelligence chief.” Los Angeles Times, August 16, 2015.

Stephen P. Klett, Jr. “Toshiba expands its Satellite notebook line.” ComputerWorld. August 30, 1993. Page 41.

Jason Koebler. “The Six-Letter Text Message That Led the CIA to the Mastermind of 9/11.” Vice News. December 9, 2014.

Joseph Krauss. “Sudanese take aim at Islamist ‘deep state’ left by al-Bashir.” Associated Press, May 4, 2019.

Alan J. Kuperman. “The Stinger Missile and U.S. Intervention in Afghanistan.” Political Science Quarterly 114, no. 2 (1999): 219-63. 

Bernard Lewis. “License to Kill: Usama bin Laden’s Declaration of Jihad.” Foreign Affairs, November/December 1998
Tim Lister. "Abbottabad -- The military town where bin Laden hid in plain sight." CNN, May 2, 2011.

Vernon Loeb. "U.S. Jury Indicts Bin Laden on Terrorism Charges." Washington Post, August 25, 1998.

Scott MacLeod. “The Paladin of Jihad.” TIME, May 6, 1996. Vol. 147, No. 19.

Dittmar Machule commentary, The Guardian, September 11, 2002.
Mark Mazetti. "C.I.A. Takes On Bigger and Riskier Role on Front Lines." New York Times. December 31, 2009.

Mapping Militant Organizations. “Al Jama’a al-Islamiya.” Stanford University. August 1, 2012.

Jerry Markon. “Capturing Bin Laden on Camera.” Washington Post, July 30, 2008.

Jane Mayer. “Junior.” The New Yorker, September 3, 2006.

Jane Mayer, “The Unidentified Queen of Torture,” The New Yorker. December 18, 2014.
Terry McDermott. “The Mastermind: Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and the making of 9/11.” The New Yorker, September 6, 2010.

Robert D. McFadden. “New Investigations Asked in Wake of Kahane Trial.” New York Times, December 24, 1991.

James C. McKinley Jr. “Two U.S. Embassies in East Africa Bombed.” New York Times, August 8, 1998.

Kevin McMurray. “Cofer Black, Out of the Shadows.” Men’s Journal, November 20, 2013.

James Gordon Meek. “FBI's Most Wanted Terrorists 15 Years Later: The Ones Who Got Away.” ABC News, October 25, 2016.

Lisa Meyers. “Osama bin Laden: missed opportunities.” NBC News, March 17, 2004. "Today in History - Saddam Hussein's Sons Killed."

Joe Miller. “Clinton Passed on Killing bin Laden?”, January 18, 2008.

John Miller. “Greetings, America. My Name is Osama bin Laden.” Esquire, February 1999.

Alison Mitchell. “A Sixth Suspect Charged in Blast.” New York Times, May 7, 1993.
Alison Mitchell. “U.S. Detains Cleric Linked to Militants.” New York Times, July 3, 1993.

Rolf Mowatt-Larsen. “Al Qaeda’s Pursuit of Weapons of Mass Destruction,” Foreign Policy. January 25, 2010.

Steven Lee Myers. “U.S. FURY ON 2 CONTINENTS: THE WEAPONS; Dozens of Ship-Launched Cruise Missiles Strike at Same Moment, 2,500 Miles Apart.” New York Times, August 21, 1998.

Donovan Myrie and Emilee Speck. “How an Orlando inspector stopped the fifth hijacker on Flight 93.” WKMG ClickOrlando, September 12, 2018.

Adam Nagourney. "Kerry Says bin Laden Tape Gave Bush a Lift."
New York Times. January 31, 2005.

Elizabeth Nash. “Madrid bombers ‘were inspired by Bin Laden address.’” The Independent, November 7, 2006.

Andrew Natsios. “Behind the Foiled Sudan Coup,” U.S. News & World Report. November 26, 2012.

NBC News. “Timeline of al-Qaida statements.” April 15, 2004.
NBC News. “Al-Qaida leaders, associates.” April 23, 2004.

NBC News. “Last Spanish combat troops leave Iraq” April 27, 2004.

New York Times. “Specter of Terror: The Suspects; Arrested in Yesterday’s Raid.” June 25, 1993.

Adam Nossiter. “The Taliban Think They Have Already Won, Peace Deal or Not.” New York Times, March 30, 2021.

NPR. “Profile: Two Senior Al-Qaeda Leaders Give Interviews to Al-Jazeera.” September 13, 2002.

NPR. "Transcript: Obama's Speech Against the Iraq War." October 2, 2002.

NPR. "Timeline of Saddam Hussein's Capture."

The Observer. “Distant voices, still lives, 08:00-09:35.”

Mitchell Owens. “Laura and George W. Bush’s House in Texas.” Architectural Digest, August 2014.
David B. Ottaway and Steve Coll. "Retracing the Steps of a Terror Suspect." Washington Post, June 4, 1995.

PBS Frontline. “Osama bin Laden: A Chronology of His Political Life.”
PBS Frontline. "The High-Risk Contracting Business."

Tom Perry. “In free Egypt, Jihad leader says time for gun is over.” Reuters, March 18, 2011.

Pew Research Center. “Mapping the Global Muslim Population.” October 7, 2009.

Todd R. Phinney. “Airpower versus Terrorism: Three Case Studies.” Air University Press, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama. 2003.

Popular Mechanics. “Debunking the 9/11 Myths: Special Report: The World Trade Center.”
Julia Preston. “Omar Abdel Rahman, Blind Cleric Found Guilty of Plot to Wage ‘War of Urban Terrorism,’ Dies at 78.” New York Times, February 18, 2017.

Selwyn Raab. “Jury Acquits Defendant in Kahane Trial.” New York Times, December 22, 1991.

Sudarsan Raghavan. “Alleged architect of U.S. Embassy bombings killed.” Washington Post, June 11, 2011.
Bruce Reidel. “Trump’s Saddam: Terror killer or terror patron?” Brookings Institution, July 11, 2016.

Fernando Reinares. “Why did the Madrid train bombings divide, not unite Spaniards?” Real Instituto Elcano, March 11, 2015.

Reuters. “CHRONOLOGY - The deadliest bomb attacks in Iraq.” February 12, 2007.

Reuters. "Factbox: Iraq war, the notable quotes." March 11, 2008.

Reuters. “Factbox: Previous limited U.S. strikes were followed by unforeseen consequences.” September 4, 2013.

Reuters. “Sudan’s former PM Sadiq al-Mahdi dies from coronavirus.” November 25, 2020.

Brian Ross and David Scott. “Qatari Royal Family Linked to Al Qaeda.” ABC News, January 7, 2006.

Sebastian Rotella. “Trial Testimony Intensifies Allegations Pakistan Is Playing Double Game.” ProPublica, May 23, 2011.

Lily Rothman. “How TIME Secured Its First Interview with Osama bin Laden.” TIME, November 24, 2014.

Peter Rutland. “Putin’s Path to Power.” Post-Soviet Affairs, vol. 16, no.4, December 2000, pp. 313-54.

Mark Schone and Rehab El-Buri, “Fort Hood: Hasan Asked Awlaki If It Was Okay to Kill American Soldiers.” ABC News,  December 23, 2009.

Ian Shapira. "The frantic effort to save lives after a deadly attack on the CIA." Washington Post. December 30, 2019.

Michael Slackman, “Bin Laden kin worry about terrorist’s wife, children,” Los Angeles Times, November 13, 2001.
Hussain Shaheed Soherwordi. “Pakistan-US Policies on the ‘War on Terror’ and the Taliban: Allies at Loggerheads.” Pakistan Horizon 63, no. 2 (2010): 51-67.
Mike Sims. “Transcript: The Yasin Interview.” 60 Minutes. June 2, 2002.

Tim Skoog, Meghna Chakrabarti and Dorey Scheimer. “First Person: The CIA’s Former Counterterrorism Chief on the Lead Up to 9/11.” WBUR, October 13, 2020.

Vivian Elizabeth Smyrl. “Crawford, TX,” Texas State Historical Association.

Missy Sullivan and Sydney Trattner. “This Man Helped Thwart the Biggest Terror Arrack That Almost Happened.” History Channel, September 11, 2017.

Ronald Sullivan. “Judge Gives Maximum Term in Kahane Case.” New York Times, January 30, 1992.

Liz Sly, “This is the man who recruited the 9/11 hijackers.” Washington Post, November 30, 2018.

Philip Taubman, “Soviet Lists Afghan War Toll: 13,310 Dead, 35,478 Wounded.” New York Times, May 26, 1988.
Bernard W. Tate. “Pentagon survivors tell their stories.” August 20, 2012.

Magnus Taylor. “Hassan al-Turabi’s Islamist Legacy in Sudan.” International Crisis Group, March 10, 2016.

Bill Trott. “‘Blind sheikh’ convicted in 1993 World Trade bombing dies in U.S. prison.” Reuters, February 18, 2017.

Craig Turner. “Egypt’s Leader Survives Assassination Attempt : Africa: Muslim extremists suspected in attack on Mubarak’s motorcade in Ethiopia. President is unharmed.” Los Angeles Times, June 27, 1995.

U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. “Iraq 2003.”

University of Pittsburgh. “Anatomy of a Terrorist Attack: An In-Depth Investigation into the 1998 Bombings of the U.S. Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania.” Spring 2005.

U.S. Army. "Operation Red Dawn nets Saddam Hussein." December 6, 2013.

U.S. Army Airborne and Special Operations Museum. "Operation Eagle Claw."

USA Today. “Red Dawn imitated art.” December 17, 2003.

Karl Vick. “Nairobi Rescuers Search for Signs of Life.” Washington Post, August 9, 1998.

Marcus Walker and James M. Dorsey. “A Student’s Dreams or a Terrorist’s Plot?” Wall Street Journal, September 18, 2001.

Wall Street Journal. “Daniel Pearl’s Abduction: A Chronology of Events” February 22, 2002.

Wall Street Journal. “Reporter Daniel Pearl Is Dead, Killed by His Captors in Pakistan” February 24, 2002.

Katie Walmsley, “9/11 Anniversary: Survivor Reflects on Escaping Death.” ABC News. September 9, 2011.

Declan Walsh. "Osama bin Laden hideout 'worth far less than U.S. claimed.'" The Guardian. May 4, 2011.

Declan Walsh. “Three Decades After His Coup, Sudan’s Former Ruler Is Held to Account.” New York Times, July 21, 2020.

Joby Warrick and Pamela Constable. "CIA base attacked in Afghanistan supported airstrikes against al-Qaeda, Taliban." Washington Post. January 1, 2010.

Washington Post. “Dar Es Salaam Bombing Map.”
Washington Post. "Following the courier."

Washington Post. “Nairobi Bombing Map.”

Tim Weiner. “Killer of Two at C.I.A. Draws Death Sentence.” New York Times, January 24, 1998.

Benjamin Weiser. "Mastermind Gets Life for Bombing of Trade Center." New York Times,  January 9, 1998.

Benjamin Weiser. “Prosecutors Are Expected to Seek Dismissal of Charges Against Bin Laden.” New York Times, May 3, 2011.

Craig Whitlock. “Probe of USS Cole Bombing Unravels.” Washington Post, May 4, 2008.

Christopher Woody. “‘A fighting war with the main enemy’: How the CIA helped land a mortal blow to the Soviets in Afghanistan 32 years ago,” Business Insider, October 2, 2018.

Bob Woodward. "Death of Osama bin Laden: Phone call pointed U.S. to compound - and to 'the pacer,'" Washington Post, May 6, 2011.

Robert F. Worth. "Blast Destroys Shrine in Iraq, Setting Off Sectarian Fury." New York Times. February 22, 2006.

Christopher S. Wren. “U.S. Jury Convicts 3 in a Conspiracy to Bomb Airliners.” New York Times, September 6, 1996.

Lawrence Wright, “The Counter-Terrorist.” The New Yorker, January 6, 2002.

Lawrence Wright, “The Agent,” The New Yorker. July 10, 2006.

Robin Wright and John-Thor Dahlburg. “Legwork, Luck Closed Net Around Bombing Suspect : Manhunt: A mysterious informer’s tip capped an intense search for alleged mastermind of trade center blast.” Los Angeles Times, February 12, 1995.

Nancy A. Youssef. "Taliban infiltrator who killed 7 from CIA wore Afghan uniform." McClatchy Newspapers. December 31, 2009.

Micah Zenko. “When Reagan Cut and Run.” Foreign Policy, February 7, 2014.


Abdullah Anas with Tam Hussein. To the Mountains: My Life in Jihad, from Algeria to Afghanistan. (London: Hurst & Company, 2019)

William M. Arkin. On That Day: The Definitive Timeline of 9/11. (New York: Public Affairs, 2021)

Abdel Bari Atwan. The Secret History of Al Qaeda. (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2006)
Abdel Bari Atwan. After Bin Laden: Al Qaeda, The Next Generation. (New York: The New Press, 2012)

Peter Baker. Days of Fire: Bush and Cheney in the White House. (New York: Anchor Books, 2013)

Milt Bearden and James Risen. The Main Enemy: The Inside Story of the CIA's Final Showdown with the KGB. (New York: Random House, 2003)

Daniel Benjamin and Steven Simon. The Age of Sacred Terror. (New York: Random House, 2002)

Peter L. Bergen. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden. (New York: Touchstone, 2001)
Peter L. Bergen. The Osama bin Laden I Know: An Oral History of Al Qaeda’s Leader. (New York: Free Press, 2006)
Peter L. Bergen. The Longest War: The Enduring Conflict Between America and Al-Qaeda. (New York: Free Press, 2011)
Peter L. Bergen. Manhunt: The Ten-Year Search for Bin Laden from 9/11 to Abbottabad. (New York: Crown Publishers, 2012)

Peter L. Bergen. The Rise and Fall of Osama bin Laden. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2021)
Gary Berntsen and Ralph Pezzullo. Jawbreaker: The Attack on Bin Laden and Al-Qaeda: A Personal Account by the CIA's Key Field Commander. (New York: Crown Publishers, 2005)

Omar bin Laden, Najwa bin Laden, Jean Sasson. Growing Up bin Laden: Osama’s Wife and Son Take Us Inside Their Secret World. (New York: St. Martin's Publishing Group, 2009)
Mark Bowden. Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War. (New York: Grove Press, 1999)

Mark Bowden. The Finish: The Killing of Osama bin Laden. (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2012)

John O. Brennan. Undaunted: My Fight Against America's Enemies, at Home and Abroad. (New York: Celadon Books, 2020)

George W. Bush. Decision Points. (New York: Crown Publishers, 2010)

Prudence Bushnell. Terrorism, Betrayal, and Resilience: My Story of the 1998 U.S. Embassy Bombings. (New York: Potomac Books, 2018)

Daniel Byman. Al Qaeda, the Islamic State, and the Global Jihadist Movement: What Everyone Needs to Know. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2015)

Gerard Chaliand and Arnaud Blin. (Eds.) The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to Al Qaeda. (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2007)

Richard A. Clarke. Against All Enemies: Inside America’s War on Terror. (New York: Free Press, 2004)

Steve Coll. Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan and Bin Laden from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001. (New York: Penguin Press, 2004)
Steve Coll. The Bin Ladens: An Arabian Family in the American Century. (New York: Penguin Books, 2008)
Robert Draper. To Start a War: How the Bush Administration Took America Into Iraq. (New York: Penguin Press, 2020)

David Dunbar and Brad Reagan, eds. Debunking 9/11 Myths: Why Conspiracy Theories Can't Stand Up to the Facts. (New York: Hearst Books, 2011)

Jim Dwyer and Kevin Flynn. 102 Minutes: The Unforgettable Story of the Fight to Survive Inside the Twin Towers. (New York: Times Books, 2005)

Robert M. Gates. From the Shadows: The Ultimate Insider's Story of Five Presidents and How They Won the Cold War. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996)

Barton Gellman. Angler: The Cheney Vice Presidency. (New York: Penguin Press, 2008)

Fawaz A. Gerges. The Far Enemy: Why Jihad Went Global. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005)

Fawaz A. Gerges. The Rise and Fall of Al-Qaeda. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011)

Garrett M. Graaf. The Only Plane in the Sky: An Oral History of 9/11. (New York: Avid Reader Press, 2019)

Marcela Grad. Massoud: An Intimate Portrait of the Legendary Afghan Leader. (New York: Webster University Press, 2009)

Robert L. Grenier. 88 Days to Kandahar: A CIA Diary. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015)

Imtiaz Gul. The Most Dangerous Place: Pakistan's Lawless Frontier. (New York: Penguin Group, 2010)

Rohan Gunaratna. Inside Al Qaeda: Global Network of Terror. (New York: Penguin Group, 2002)

Rohan Gunaratna and Khuram Iqbal. Pakistan: Terrorism Ground Zero. (London: Reaktion Books, 2011)

Mustafa Hamid and Leah Farrall. The Arabs at War in Afghanistan. (London: Hurst & Company, 2015)

Thomas Hegghammer. The Caravan: Abdallah Azzam and the Rise of Global Jihad. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020)

Bruce Hoffman. Inside Terrorism. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2006)
Raymond Ibrahim (ed.). The Al Qaeda Reader. (New York: Broadway Books, 2007)

Nelly Lahoud. The Bin Laden Papers: How the Abbottabad Raid Revealed the Truth About Al Qaeda, Its Leader and His Family. (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 2022)

Kirk S. Lippold. Front Burner: Al Qaeda's Attack on the U.S.S. Cole. (New York: Public Affairs, 2012)

Jane Mayer. The Dark Side: The Inside Story of How the War on Terror Turned into a War on American Ideals. (New York: Doubleday, 2008)

Terry McDermott. Perfect Soldiers: The Hijackers: Who They Were, Why They Did It. (New York: Harper Collins, 2005)
Terry McDermott and Josh Meyer. The Hunt for KSM: Inside the Pursuit and Takedown of the Real 9/11 Mastermind. (New York: Little Brown and Company, 2012)
Michael Morrell with Bill Harlow. The Great War of Our Time: The CIA’s Fight Against Terrorism from Al Qa’ida to ISIS. (New York: Twelve, 2015)
Barack Obama. A Promised Land. (New York: Crown, 2020)
Leon Panetta and Jim Newton. Worthy Fights: A Memoir of Leadership in War and Peace. (New York: Penguin Books, 2014)

Robert A. Pape. Dying to Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism. (New York: Random House, 2005)

Joseph Pfeifer. Ordinary Heroes: A Memoir of 9/11. (New York: Portfolio/Penguin, 2021)

Jonathan Randal. Osama: The Making of a Terrorist. (New York: Random House, 2004)

Simon Reeve. The New Jackals: Ramzi Yousef, Osama bin Laden and the Future of Terrorism. (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1999)

Bruce Reidel. Deadly Embrace: Pakistan, America and the Future of the Global Jihad. (Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2011)

Michael Scheuer. Osama bin Laden. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011).

Gary C. Schroen. First In: An Insider's Account of How the CIA Spearheaded the War on Terror in Afghanistan. (New York: Random House, 2005)

Cathy Scott-Clark and Adrian Levy. The Exile: The Stunning Inside Story of Osama bin Laden and Al-Qaeda in Flight. (New York: Bloomsbury, 2017)
Ali H. Soufan, with Daniel Freedman. The Black Banners: The Inside Story of 9/11 and the War Against Al Qaeda. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2011)
Ali Soufan. Anatomy of Terror: From the Death of bin Laden to the Rise of the Islamic State. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2017)

George Tenet with Bill Harlow. At the Center of the Storm: My Years at the CIA. (New York: HarperCollins, 2007)

Chris Wallace with Mitch Weiss. Countdown Bin Laden: The Untold Story of the 247-Day Hunt to Bring the Mastermind of 9/11 to Justice. (New York: Avid Reader Press, 2021)

Joby Warrick. The Triple Agent: The Al-Qaeda Mole Who Infiltrated the CIA. (New York: Penguin RandomHouse, 2011)

Joby Warrick. Black Flags: The Rise of ISIS. (New York: Doubleday, 2015)

Tim Weiner. Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA. (New York: Random House, 2007)

Tim Weiner. Enemies: A History of the FBI. (New York: Random House, 2012)

Murray Weiss. The Man Who Warned America: The Life and Death of John O'Neill, the FBI's Embattled Counterterror Warrior. (New York: HarperCollins, 2003)

Chris Whipple. The Spy Masters: How the CIA Directors Shape History and the Future. (New York: Scribner, 2020)

Bob Woodward. Bush at War. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002)
Bob Woodward. Plan of Attack. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004) 
Bob Woodward. Obama’s Wars. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2010)
Lawrence Wright. The Looming Tower: Al Qaeda and the Road to 9/11. (New York: Vintage Books, 2006)

Lawrence Wright. The Terror Years. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2016)

Government Reports and Documents

9/11 Commission Report

9/11 Commission: 9/11 and Terrorist Travel

9/11 Commission Hearings

Abbottabad Commission Report

Report of the Accountability Review Boards. “Dar Es Salaam: Discussion and Findings”


Report of the Accountability Review Boards. “Nairobi: Discussion and Findings”

Gina Bennett. “The Wandering Mujahidin: Armed and Dangerous.” United States Department of State Bureau of Intelligence and Research, August 21-22, 1993.

CIA Memo to Sudanese Major General Elfatih Erwa, delivered on March 8, 1996.

Richard Clarke. “Strategy for Eliminating the Threat from the Jihadist Networks of al Qida: Status and Prospects.” December 2000.

Clinton Digital Library. “PDD 39 – U.S. Policy on Counterterrorism.” June 21, 1995.

FBI. “Artifact of the Month: Richard Reid’s Shoes.” December 20, 2020.

FBI “9/11 Investigation”
FBI “East African Embassy Bombings”
FBI “Millennium Plot / Ahmed Ressam”
FBI “USS Cole Bombing”
FBI “World Trade Center Bombing 1993”

FBI. "Terrorism in the United States: 1998"

House and Senate Intelligence Committees Joint Inquiry Report on 9/11 Attacks

Declassified 28 pages from House/Senate Intelligence Committee Report

National Institute of Standards and Technology World Trade Center investigation

National Transportation Safety Board 9/11 Documents “U.S. Department of State Annual Report on International Religious Freedom for 1999: Tanzania.” September 9, 1999. “Remembering the 1998 Embassy Bombings.” August 3, 2018.

WMD Commission Report

Documentaries, Films, and Series

102 Minutes That Changed America (History Channel)
9/11 (CNN)
9/11: Escape from the Towers (History Channel)
9/11: Four Flights (History Channel)
9/11: One Day in America (National Geographic)
9/11: The Final Minutes of Flight 93 (History Channel)
Bin Laden's Hard Drive (National Geographic)
Days That Shaped America, Episode 4: September 11th (History Channel)
Final Hours: America's Longest War (Hulu)
Manhunt (HBO)
Race Against Time: The CIA and 9/11 (CBS)
Revealed: The Hunt for Bin Laden (History Channel)
Road to 9/11 (History Channel)
Spy Ops, Episode 1: Operation Jawbreaker (Netflix)
The Day the Towers Fell (History Channel)
The Looming Tower (Hulu)
The Man Who Knew (PBS Frontline)
The Seventies, Episode 7: Terrorism at Home and Abroad (CNN)
The Nineties, Episode 4: New World Order (CNN)
The Nineties, Episode 6: Terrorism Hits Home (CNN)
The 2000s, Episode 3: Mission Accomplished (CNN)
The Spymasters: CIA in the Crosshairs (Showtime)
Turning Point: 9/11 and the War on Terror (Netflix)
United 93 (Universal Pictures)
World Trade Center (Paramount Pictures)
Zero Dark Thirty (Columbia Pictures)

Legal Documents

U.S. v. Usama bin Laden (1998)
Handed up and sealed in August of 1998, unsealed in November of 1998.
Note: The grand jury investigation that produced this indictment began in 1996, before the Africa embassy bombings of August of 1998.

U.S. v. Usama bin Laden, et. al. (2000)
Africa embassy bombings indictment

U.S. v. Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, et. al. (2011)
9/11 conspirators indictment

U.S. v. Zacarias Moussaoui (2001)

U.S. v. Omar Abdel Rahman, et. al. (1999)

U.S. v. Ramzi Ahmed Yousef, et. al. (1996)

U.S. v. Ramzi Ahmed Yousef, et. al. (1998)

Primary Source Documents

Al Qaeda Documents (Combating Terrorism Center at West Point)

Al Qaeda's Structure and Bylaws

Al Qaeda Goals and Structure

Bin Laden's Bookshelf (Office of the Director of National Intelligence)

Osama bin Laden fatwa, first published in the London newspaper Al Quds Al Arabi in August of 1996
"Declaration of War Against the Americans Occupying the Land of the Two Holy Places"

Osama bin Laden's will and testament (undated, from Nineties)


Osama bin Laden interview with CNN, March 1997.

Osama bin Laden interview with ABC News, May 1998.

Osama bin Laden interview with Al Jazeera, October 2001.

George W. Bush. "Remarks in Sarasota, Florida, on the Terrorist Attack on New York City's World Trade Center." September 11, 2001.

Bill Clinton. “Address to the Nation by the President.” August 20, 1998.

Commission on Presidential Debates. “October 17, 2000 Debate Transcript.”

Commission on Presidential Debates. "October 7, 2008 Debate Transcript."

Barack Obama. "Osama bin Laden Dead." May 1, 2011.

Testimony of Cofer Black before the joint House/Senate Intelligence Committee hearing, September 26, 2002.

United 93 Cockpit Voice Recorder


Long Shadow: 9/11's Lingering Questions (Long Lead/Campside Media/The Trace)


Abu Ubaydah al-Banshiri biography (CTC West Point)
Al Qaeda's founding military commander, who drowned in a deadly ferry accident
on Lake Victoria in May of 1996.

"Anatomy of a Terrorist Attack: An In-Depth Investigation into the 1998 Bombings of the U.S. Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania" (University of Pittsburgh)

Michael Battles. “25 Years Later: Remembering Khobar Towers.” U.S. Air Force. June 25, 2021.

Clark County, Indiana Prosecutor. “Mir Aimal Kasi.”

Council on Foreign Relations

Counter Extremism Project

The Counter-Extremism Project. “Al-Qaeda”

The Counter-Extremism Project. “Omar Abdel-Rahman”
The Counter-Extremism Project. “Ramzi Yousef”
The Counter-Extremism Project. “The NCP in Sudan”

DARPA. “A Selected History of DARPA Innovation.”

Encyclopedia Brittanica. “Al-Mahdi”

Encyclopedia Brittanica. “Sudan”

Federation of American Scientists. “Statement by CIA and FBI on Arrest of Mir Aimal Kansi.” June 17, 1997.

Flight 93 National Memorial


Barbara A. Grewe. “Legal Barriers to Information Sharing: The Erection of a Wall Between Intelligence and Law Enforcement Investigations.” August 20, 2004.

In the Footsteps of Bin Laden (CNN)

Law Library - American Law and Legal Information. “El Sayyid Nosair Trial: 1991.”

William H. McRaven. "The Theory of Special Operations." Naval Postgraduate School, 1993.

National 9/11 Pentagon Memorial

National September 11 Memorial and Museum

The Rendition Project

Rewards for Justice. “Mir Aimal Kansi”

United States Commission on National Security/21st Century. “New World Coming: American Security in the 21st Century.” September 15, 1999.

United States Marines. “Marine Barracks Bombing at Beirut, Lebanon.” October 22, 2018.

Richard B. Zabel and James J. Benjamin, Jr. “In Pursuit of Justice: Prosecuting Terrorism Cases in the Federal Courts.” Human Rights First, May 2008.

bottom of page