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This is the list of source material I used in researching Zero Hour: A History of 9/11.

Also, here is a list of what I consider to be the essential texts about 9/11.


Al Jazeera. “Profile: Omar Suleiman.” July 19, 2012.

Alexei Alexiev. “Inside the Soviet Army in Afghanistan.” RAND Corporation, May 1988.


All Things Considered. “What a Downed Black Hawk in Somalia Taught America.” NPR, October 5, 2013.

Mike Allen. “Rove suspected Gore aide of DUI leak.” Politico, March 4, 2010.

Amnesty International. “Afghanistan’s refugees: forty years of dispossession.” June 20, 2019.


Deborah Amos. “30 Years Later, Photos Emerge from Killings in Syria.” NPR, February 2, 2012.

Scottie Andrew. “How the phrase ‘October surprise’ entered the political lexicon.’ CNN, October 2, 2020.

Kelli Arena. “Sources: Egyptian gets $27 million for Mohammed's arrest tip” CNN, March 12, 2003.

Associated Press. “500 Are Believed Dead as Tanzania Ferry Sinks in Lake Victoria.” May 22, 1996.

James Astill. “Osama: the Sudan years.” The Guardian, October 17, 2001.

Abdul Bari Atwan. “Inside Osama’s mountain lair.” The Guardian, November 12, 2001.

Australian Broadcasting Corporation. “‘Carlos the Jackal’ sentenced to third life term for 1974 attack on Paris shopping arcade.” March 28, 2017.

Michael Battles. “25 Years Later: Remembering Khobar Towers.” U.S. Air Force. June 25, 2021.

BBC News. “Sunnis and Shia in the Middle East.” December 19, 2013.

BBC News. “What is Sharia and how is it applied?” May 7, 2014.

BBC News. “Chechnya profile – Timeline.” January 17, 2018.

BBC News. “Lake Victoria Tanzania ferry disaster: Survivor found in air pocket.” September 22, 2018.

Daniel Benjamin and Steven Simon. “The New Face of Terrorism.” New York Times, January 4, 2000.

Peter Bergen. “Five myths about Osama bin Laden.” Washington Post, May 6, 2011.


Peter Bergen. “The cleric who altered the course of modern history.” CNN, February 19, 2017.

Richard Bernstein. “Questioning Focuses on One Defendant.” New York Times, November 11, 1993.

Richard Bernstein. “Explosion at the Twin Towers; 4 Are Convicted in Bombing at the World Trade Center That Killed 6, Stunned U.S.” New York Times, March 5, 1994.

Preeti Bhattacharji. “Chechen Terrorism (Russia, Chechnya, Separatist),” Council on Foreign Relations. April 8, 2010.

Barbara Bodine. “9/11 Miniseries Is Bunk.” Los Angeles Times, September 8, 2006.

Greg Botelho. “Sudanese Islamist leader, bin Laden ally Hassan al-Turabi dies.” CNN, March 5, 2016.

Mark Bowden. “The Legacy of Black Hawk Down.” Smithsonian Magazine, January/February 2019.

F. Brinley Bruton and Courtney Kube. “Suspected 9/11 Recruiter Mohammed Haymar Zammar captured in Syria,” NBC News, April 19, 2018.

The Business Standard. “Journalist who interviewed Osama bin Laden thrice, and told the tale.” November 2, 2020.

Daniel L. Byman. “What Zarqawi’s Death Means for the Insurgency.” The Brookings Institution, June 8, 2006.

Amos Chapple. “‘Welcome to Hell, Part II’: The Second Chechen War.” Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, October 1, 2019.

CNN. “Khalid Sheikh Mohammed Fast Facts.” Updated December 21, 2022.

CNN. “U.S. missiles pound targets in Afghanistan, Sudan.” August 21, 1998.


CNN. “Rescuers search for life in rubble of Nairobi bomb attack.” August 8, 1998.


CNN. “Bush acknowledges 1976 DUI charge.” November 2, 2000.


CNN. “Suspect in USS Cole bombing kills self in Yemen.” February 14, 2002.

CNN. “Pakistani man executed for CIA killings.” November 15, 2002.

CNN. “Jordan: Embassy bombers ‘cowards’” August 7, 2003.

CNN. “U.N. attack branded ‘ruthless’” August 19, 2003.

CNN. “Al-Zawahiri: Egyptian militant group joins al Qaeda.” August 5, 2006.

CNN. “Osama bin Laden: Fast Facts.” April 27, 2021.

CNN. “Spain Train Bombings Fast Facts.” Updated February 21, 2023.

CNN exit poll, 2004 presidential election


Council on Foreign Relations“The Iraq War, 2003-2011.”

Council on Foreign Relations. “The U.S. War in Afghanistan, 1999-2020.”


Council on Foreign Relations. “The Sunni-Shia Divide.”

Bette Dam. “The Secret Life of Mullah Omar,” Zomia Center, 2019.


Robert M. Danin. “Remembering the Hama Massacre.” Council on Foreign Relations, February 2, 2012.


Anusuya Datta. “19 years to 9/11: Satellite images that captured the horrors.” Geospatial World, September 11, 2020.

Karin Davies. “Ferry Disaster Survivors Blame Crew For Overcrowding.” Associated Press, May 23, 1996.


Shane Drennan. “Constructing Takfir.” CTC Sentinel, June 2008, Vol 1, Issue 7.


Richard L. Eldredge. “Where are they now? CNN’s Boys of Baghdad.” Atlanta Magazine. March 18, 2015.

Richard Engel. “Sadat’s Assassination Plotter Remains Unrepentant.” NBC News, July 5, 2011.


Richard Ernsberger, Jr. “1983 Beirut barracks bombing: ‘The BLT Building is gone!’ HistoryNet, October 23, 2019.


William E. Farrell. “5 Sadat Assassins Executed in Egypt.” New York Times, April 16, 1982.


Federation of American Scientists. “al-Gama’at al-Islamiyya.” May 3, 2004.


Federation of American Scientists. “al-Jihad.” May 3, 2004.

Peter Finn, Joby Warrick and Julie Tate. “9/11 planner is recast as key asset for CIA.” Washington Post, August 29, 2009.

Robert Fisk. “Anti-Soviet warrior puts his army on the road to peace.” The Independent, December 6, 1993.

Robert Fisk. “Arab rebel leaders warns the British: ‘Get out of the Gulf.’” The Independent, July 10, 1996.


Robert Fisk. “Muslim leaders warns of a new assault on US forces.” The Independent, March 22, 1997.


Robert Fisk. “Osama bin Laden: The godfather of terror?” The Independent, September 15, 2001.


Robert Fisk. “A close encounter with the man who shook the world.” The Independent. October 23, 2011.

Tommy Franks. “War of Words,” New York Times, October 19, 2004.

Joseph P. Fried. “Case of Sheik and 9 Others Is Delivered To the Jury.” New York Times, September 24, 1995.


Joseph P. Fried. “The Terror Conspiracy: The Overview; Sheik And 9 Followers Guilty Of A Conspiracy Of Terrorism.” New York Times. October 2, 1995.


Joseph P. Fried. “Sheikh Sentenced to Life in Prison in Bombing Plot.” New York Times, January 18, 1996.


Joseph P. Fried. “Kevin Thomas Duffy, U.S. Judge in Terrorism Cases, Dies at 87.” New York Times, April 1, 2020.


Malcolm Gladwell. “N.Y. Bomb Plotters Sentenced to Long Terms.” Washington Post, January 18, 1996. “BGM-109 Tomahawk – Operational Use.” “FIM-92A Stinger Weapons System: RMP & Basic.”


Rohan Gunaratna and Aviv Oreg, (2010) “Al Qaeda's Organizational Structure and its Evolution,” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 33: 12, 1043 — 1078.


Clyde Haberman. “Despite Verdict, Kahane’s Son Says Defendant Deserves Death.” New York Times, December 23, 1991.

Ashrad Abdul Hamid. “Egypt puts key members of ‘al-Jama’a al-Islamiyya’ on terror list.” Al-Arabiya News, November 11, 2018.

Paul Hamilos and Mark Tran. “21 guilty, seven cleared over Madrid train bombings.” The Guardian, October 31, 2007.

Tore Refslund Hamming. “Al Qaeda After Ayman al-Zawahiri.” Lawfare, April 11, 2021.


Hassan Hassan Twitter thread, November 13, 2020.


Andrew Higgins. “The War That Continues to Shape Russia, 25 Years Later.” New York Times, December 10, 2019.

History Channel. “Terrorists bomb trains in Madrid.” February 9, 2010.

History Channel. “Russian forces enter Chechnya.” July 20, 2010.

History Channel. “9/11 Timeline.” June 21, 2011.

Phil Hirschkorn. “Jury hears day-by-day account of embassy bombings.” CNN. May 2, 2001.

InfoWorld. “Toshiba cuts prices of all notebook lines.” May 2, 1994. Page 33.

Irish Times, “Bin Laden’s deputy killed by US.” November 17, 2001.

Bart Jansen. “10 worst ferry disasters worldwide.” USA Today, April 16, 2014.

Douglas Jehl. “C.I.A. Officers Played Role In Sheik Visas.” New York Times, July 22, 1993.


Randy Kennedy. “Pleas for Mercy, Statements of Defiance.” New York Times, January 18, 1996.

Glenn Kessler. “Was Khalid Sheikh Mohammed ‘waterboarded’ 183 times?” Washington Post, February 6, 2017.

Azmat Khan. “Slideshow: An American’s Path to the Mumbai Attacks.” PBS Frontline, November 22, 2011.


Azmat Khan. “New Evidence of Pakistan’s Role in the Mumbai Attacks?” PBS Frontline, June 28, 2012.

Zarar Khan. “Hamid Gul dies at 78; former Pakistan intelligence chief.” Los Angeles Times, August 16, 2015.

Stephen P. Klett, Jr. “Toshiba expands its Satellite notebook line.” ComputerWorld. August 30, 1993. Page 41.

Jason Koebler. “The Six-Letter Text Message That Led the CIA to the Mastermind of 9/11.” Vice News. December 9, 2014.

Joseph Krauss. “Sudanese take aim at Islamist ‘deep state’ left by al-Bashir.” Associated Press, May 4, 2019.

Alan J. Kuperman. “The Stinger Missile and U.S. Intervention in Afghanistan.” Political Science Quarterly 114, no. 2 (1999): 219-63. vxvvxx      1112ew 

Bernard Lewis. “License to Kill: Usama bin Laden’s Declaration of Jihad.” Foreign Affairs, November/December 1998


Scott MacLeod. “The Paladin of Jihad.” TIME, May 6, 1996. Vol. 147, No. 19.

Dittmar Machule commentary, The Guardian, September 11, 2002.


Mapping Militant Organizations. “Al Jama’a al-Islamiya.” Stanford University. August 1, 2012.

Jerry Markon. “Capturing Bin Laden on Camera.” Washington Post, July 30, 2008.

Jane Mayer. “Junior.” The New Yorker, September 3, 2006.

Jane Mayer, “The Unidentified Queen of Torture,” The New Yorker. December 18, 2014.

Terry McDermott. “The Mastermind: Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and the making of 9/11.” The New Yorker, September 6, 2010.

Robert D. McFadden. “New Investigations Asked in Wake of Kahane Trial.” New York Times, December 24, 1991.

James C. McKinley Jr. “Two U.S. Embassies in East Africa Bombed.” New York Times, August 8, 1998.

Kevin McMurray. “Cofer Black, Out of the Shadows.” Men’s Journal, November 20, 2013.

James Gordon Meek. “FBI's Most Wanted Terrorists 15 Years Later: The Ones Who Got Away.” ABC News, October 25, 2016.

Joe Miller. “Clinton Passed on Killing bin Laden?”, January 18, 2008.

John Miller. “Greetings, America. My Name is Osama bin Laden.” Esquire, February 1999.

Alison Mitchell. “A Sixth Suspect Charged in Blast.” New York Times, May 7, 1993.


Alison Mitchell. “U.S. Detains Cleric Linked to Militants.” New York Times, July 3, 1993.

Rolf Mowatt-Larsen. “Al Qaeda’s Pursuit of Weapons of Mass Destruction,” Foreign Policy. January 25, 2010.

Steven Lee Myers. “U.S. FURY ON 2 CONTINENTS: THE WEAPONS; Dozens of Ship-Launched Cruise Missiles Strike at Same Moment, 2,500 Miles Apart.” New York Times, August 21, 1998.

Donovan Myrie and Emilee Speck. “How an Orlando inspector stopped the fifth hijacker on Flight 93.” WKMG ClickOrlando, September 12, 2018.

Elizabeth Nash. “Madrid bombers ‘were inspired by Bin Laden address.’” The Independent, November 7, 2006.

Andrew Natsios. “Behind the Foiled Sudan Coup,” U.S. News & World Report. November 26, 2012.

NBC News. “Timeline of al-Qaida statements.” April 15, 2004.


NBC News. “Al-Qaida leaders, associates.” April 23, 2004.

NBC News. “Last Spanish combat troops leave Iraq” April 27, 2004.

New York Times. “Specter of Terror: The Suspects; Arrested in Yesterday’s Raid.” June 25, 1993.

Adam Nossiter, “The Taliban Think They Have Already Won, Peace Deal or Not.” New York Times, March 30, 2021.

NPR, “Profile: Two Senior Al-Qaeda Leaders Give Interviews to Al-Jazeera.” September 13, 2002.

The Observer. “Distant voices, still lives, 08:00-09:35.”

Mitchell Owens. “Laura and George W. Bush’s House in Texas.” Architectural Digest, August 2014.


PBS. “Osama bin Laden: A Chronology of His Political Life.” Frontline, date unknown.


Tom Perry. “In free Egypt, Jihad leader says time for gun is over.” Reuters, March 18, 2011.

Pew Research Center. “Mapping the Global Muslim Population.” October 7, 2009.

Todd R. Phinney. “Airpower versus Terrorism: Three Case Studies.” Air University Press, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama. 2003.

Popular Mechanics. “Debunking the 9/11 Myths: Special Report: The World Trade Center.”


Julia Preston. “Omar Abdel Rahman, Blind Cleric Found Guilty of Plot to Wage ‘War of Urban Terrorism,’ Dies at 78.” New York Times, February 18, 2017.

Selwyn Raab. “Jury Acquits Defendant in Kahane Trial.” New York Times, December 22, 1991.

Sudarsan Raghavan. “Alleged architect of U.S. Embassy bombings killed.” Washington Post, June 11, 2011.


Bruce Reidel. “Trump’s Saddam: Terror killer or terror patron?” Brookings Institution, July 11, 2016.

Fernando Reinares. “Why did the Madrid train bombings divide, not unite Spaniards?” Real Instituto Elcano, March 11, 2015.

Reuters. “CHRONOLOGY - The deadliest bomb attacks in Iraq.” February 12, 2007.

Reuters. “Factbox: Previous limited U.S. strikes were followed by unforeseen consequences.” September 4, 2013.

Reuters. “Sudan’s former PM Sadiq al-Mahdi dies from coronavirus.” November 25, 2020.

Brian Ross and David Scott. “Qatari Royal Family Linked to Al Qaeda.” ABC News, January 7, 2006.

Sebastian Rotella. “Trial Testimony Intensifies Allegations Pakistan Is Playing Double Game.” ProPublica, May 23, 2011.

Lily Rothman. “How TIME Secured Its First Interview with Osama bin Laden.” TIME, November 24, 2014.

Peter Rutland. “Putin’s Path to Power.” Post-Soviet Affairs, vol. 16, no.4, December 2000, pp. 313-54.

Mark Schone and Rehab El-Buri, “Fort Hood: Hasan Asked Awlaki If It Was Okay to Kill American Soldiers.” ABC News,  December 23, 2009.

Michael Slackman, “Bin Laden kin worry about terrorist’s wife, children,” Los Angeles Times, November 13, 2001.


Hussain Shaheed Soherwordi. “Pakistan-US Policies on the ‘War on Terror’ and the Taliban: Allies at Loggerheads.” Pakistan Horizon 63, no. 2 (2010): 51-67.


Mike Sims. “Transcript: The Yasin Interview.” 60 Minutes. June 2, 2002.

Tim Skoog, Meghna Chakrabarti and Dorey Scheimer. “First Person: The CIA’s Former Counterterrorism Chief on the Lead Up to 9/11.” WBUR, October 13, 2020.

Vivian Elizabeth Smyrl. “Crawford, TX,” Texas State Historical Association.

Missy Sullivan and Sydney Trattner. “This Man Helped Thwart the Biggest Terror Arrack That Almost Happened.” History Channel, September 11, 2017.

Ronald Sullivan. “Judge Gives Maximum Term in Kahane Case.” New York Times, January 30, 1992.

Liz Sly, “This is the man who recruited the 9/11 hijackers.” Washington Post, November 30, 2018.

Philip Taubman, “Soviet Lists Afghan War Toll: 13,310 Dead, 35,478 Wounded.” New York Times, May 26, 1988.


Bernard W. Tate. “Pentagon survivors tell their stories.” August 20, 2012.

Magnus Taylor. “Hassan al-Turabi’s Islamist Legacy in Sudan.” International Crisis Group, March 10, 2016.

Bill Trott. “‘Blind sheikh’ convicted in 1993 World Trade bombing dies in U.S. prison.” Reuters, February 18, 2017.

Craig Turner. “Egypt’s Leader Survives Assassination Attempt : Africa: Muslim extremists suspected in attack on Mubarak’s motorcade in Ethiopia. President is unharmed.” Los Angeles Times, June 27, 1995.

U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. “Iraq 2003.”

University of Pittsburgh. “Anatomy of a Terrorist Attack: An In-Depth Investigation into the 1998 Bombings of the U.S. Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania.” Spring 2005.

USA Today. “Red Dawn imitated art.” December 17, 2003.

Karl Vick. “Nairobi Rescuers Search for Signs of Life.” Washington Post, August 9, 1998.

Marcus Walker and James M. Dorsey. “A Student’s Dreams or a Terrorist’s Plot?” Wall Street Journal, September 18, 2001.

Wall Street Journal. “Daniel Pearl’s Abduction: A Chronology of Events” February 22, 2002.

Wall Street Journal. “Reporter Daniel Pearl Is Dead, Killed by His Captors in Pakistan” February 24, 2002.

Katie Walmsley, “9/11 Anniversary: Survivor Reflects on Escaping Death.” ABC News. September 9, 2011.

Declan Walsh. “Three Decades After His Coup, Sudan’s Former Ruler Is Held to Account.” New York Times, July 21, 2020.

Washington Post. “Dar Es Salaam Bombing Map.”


Washington Post. “Nairobi Bombing Map.”

Benjamin Weiser. “Prosecutors Are Expected to Seek Dismissal of Charges Against Bin Laden.” New York Times, May 3, 2011.

Craig Whitlock. “Probe of USS Cole Bombing Unravels.” Washington Post, May 4, 2008.

Christopher Woody, “‘A fighting war with the main enemy’: How the CIA helped land a mortal blow to the Soviets in Afghanistan 32 years ago,” Business Insider, October 2, 2018.

Christopher S. Wren. “U.S. Jury Convicts 3 in a Conspiracy to Bomb Airliners.” New York Times, September 6, 1996.

Lawrence Wright, “The Counter-Terrorist.” The New Yorker, January 6, 2002.

Lawrence Wright, “The Agent,” The New Yorker. July 10, 2006.

Robin Wright and John-Thor Dahlburg. “Legwork, Luck Closed Net Around Bombing Suspect : Manhunt: A mysterious informer’s tip capped an intense search for alleged mastermind of trade center blast.” Los Angeles Times, February 12, 1995.

Micah Zenko. “When Reagan Cut and Run.” Foreign Policy, February 7, 2014.


Abdullah Anas with Tam Hussein. To the Mountains: My Life in Jihad, from Algeria to Afghanistan. (London: Hurst & Company, 2019)

Abdel Bari Atwan. The Secret History of Al Qaeda. (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2006)


Peter Baker. Days of Fire: Bush and Cheney in the White House. (New York: Anchor Books, 2013)

Milt Bearden and James Risen. The Main Enemy: The Inside Story of the CIA's Final Showdown with the KGB. (New York: Random House, 2003)

Peter L. Bergen. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden. (New York: Touchstone, 2001)


Peter L. Bergen. The Osama bin Laden I Know: An Oral History of Al Qaeda’s Leader. (New York: Free Press, 2006)


Peter L. Bergen. The Longest War: The Enduring Conflict Between America and Al-Qaeda. (New York: Free Press, 2011)


Peter L. Bergen. Manhunt: The Ten-Year Search for Bin Laden from 9/11 to Abbottabad. (New York: Crown Publishers, 2012)

Peter L. Bergen. The Rise and Fall of Osama bin Laden. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2021)


Omar bin Laden, Najwa bin Laden, Jean Sasson. Growing Up bin Laden: Osama’s Wife and Son Take Us Inside Their Secret World. (New York: St. Martin's Publishing Group, 2009)


Mark Bowden. Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War. (New York: Grove Press, 1999)

Mark Bowden. The Finish: The Killing of Osama bin Laden. (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2012)

George W. Bush. Decision Points. (New York: Crown Publishers, 2010)

Daniel Byman. Al Qaeda, the Islamic State, and the Global Jihadist Movement: What Everyone Needs to Know. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2015)

Gerard Chaliand and Arnaud Blin. (Eds.) The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to Al Qaeda. (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2007)

Richard A. Clarke. Against All Enemies: Inside America’s War on Terror. (New York: Free Press, 2004)

Steve Coll. Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan and Bin Laden from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001. (New York: Penguin Press, 2004)


Steve Coll. The Bin Ladens: An Arabian Family in the American Century. (New York: Penguin Books, 2008)


David Dunbar and Brad Reagan, eds. Debunking 9/11 Myths: Why Conspiracy Theories Can't Stand Up to the Facts. (New York: Hearst Books, 2011)

Jim Dwyer and Kevin Flynn. 102 Minutes: The Unforgettable Story of the Fight to Survive Inside the Twin Towers. (New York: Times Books, 2005)

Barton Gellman. Angler: The Cheney Vice Presidency. (New York: Penguin Press, 2008)

Fawaz A. Gerges. The Far Enemy: Why Jihad Went Global. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005)

Fawaz A. Gerges. The Rise and Fall of Al-Qaeda. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011)

Garrett M. Graaf. The Only Plane in the Sky: An Oral History of 9/11. (New York: Avid Reader Press, 2019)

Marcela Grad. Massoud: An Intimate Portrait of the Legendary Afghan Leader. (New York: Webster University Press, 2009)

Robert L. Grenier. 88 Days to Kandahar: A CIA Diary. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015)

Imtiaz Gul. The Most Dangerous Place: Pakistan's Lawless Frontier. (New York: Penguin Group, 2010)

Rohan Gunaratna. Inside Al Qaeda: Global Network of Terror. (New York: Penguin Group, 2002)

Rohan Gunaratna and Khuram Iqbal. Pakistan: Terrorism Ground Zero. (London: Reaktion Books, 2011)

Mustafa Hamid and Leah Farrall. The Arabs at War in Afghanistan. (London: Hurst & Company, 2015)

Thomas Hegghammer. The Caravan: Abdallah Azzam and the Rise of Global Jihad. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020)

Bruce Hoffman. Inside Terrorism. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2006)


Raymond Ibrahim (ed.). The Al Qaeda Reader. (New York: Broadway Books, 2007)


Jane Mayer. The Dark Side: The Inside Story of How the War on Terror Turned into a War on American Ideals. (New York: Doubleday, 2008)

Terry McDermott. Perfect Soldiers: The Hijackers: Who They Were, Why They Did It. (New York: Harper Collins, 2005)


Terry McDermott and Josh Meyer. The Hunt for KSM: Inside the Pursuit and Takedown of the Real 9/11 Mastermind (New York: Little Brown and Company, 2012)


Michael Morrell with Bill Harlow. The Great War of Our Time: The CIA’s Fight Against Terrorism from Al Qa’ida to ISIS. (New York: Twelve, 2015)


Barack Obama. A Promised Land. (New York: Crown, 2020)


Robert A. Pape. Dying to Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism. (New York: Random House, 2005)


Gary Berntsen and Ralph Pezzullo. Jawbreaker: The Attack on Bin Laden and Al-Qaeda: A Personal Account by the CIA's Key Field Commander. (New York: Crown Publishers, 2005)

Joseph Pfeifer. Ordinary Heroes: A Memoir of 9/11. (New York: Portfolio/Penguin, 2021)

Jonathan Randal. Osama: The Making of a Terrorist. (New York: Random House, 2004)

Simon Reeve. The New Jackals: Ramzi Yousef, Osama bin Laden and the Future of Terrorism. (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1999)

Bruce Reidel. Deadly Embrace: Pakistan, America and the Future of the Global Jihad. (Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2011)

Michael Scheuer. Osama bin Laden. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011).

Gary C. Schroen. First In: An Insider's Account of How the CIA Spearheaded the War on Terror in Afghanistan. (New York: Random House, 2005)

Cathy Scott-Clark and Adrian Levy. The Exile: The Stunning Inside Story of Osama bin Laden and Al-Qaeda in Flight. (New York: Bloomsbury, 2017)


Ali H. Soufan, with Daniel Freedman. The Black Banners: The Inside Story of 9/11 and the War Against Al Qaeda. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2011)


Ali Soufan. Anatomy of Terror: From the Death of bin Laden to the Rise of the Islamic State. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2017)

George Tenet with Bill Harlow. At the Center of the Storm: My Years at the CIA. (New York: HarperCollins, 2007)

Joby Warrick. The Triple Agent: The Al-Qaeda Mole Who Infiltrated the CIA. (New York: Penguin RandomHouse, 2011)

Joby Warrick. Black Flags: The Rise of ISIS. (New York: Doubleday, 2015)

Tim Weiner. Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA. (New York: Random House, 2007)

Tim Weiner. Enemies: A History of the FBI. (New York: Random House, 2012)

Murray Weiss. The Man Who Warned America: The Life and Death of John O'Neill, the FBI's Embattled Counterterror Warrior. (New York: HarperCollins, 2003)

Bob Woodward. Bush at War. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002)


Bob Woodward. Plan of Attack. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004) 


Bob Woodward. Obama’s Wars. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2010)


Lawrence Wright. The Looming Tower: Al Qaeda and the Road to 9/11. (New York: Vintage Books, 2006)

Lawrence Wright. The Terror Years. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2016)

Government Documents and Reports

The 9/11 Commission Report

9/11 Commission, Staff Statement No. 16. “Outline of the 9/11 Plot.”

Central Intelligence Agency. “Fatwas or Religious Rulings by Militant Islamic Groups Against the United States.” February 23, 1998.

Central Intelligence Agency. “Afghanistan Camps Central to 11 September Plot: Can Al-Qa’ida Train on the Run?” June 20, 2003.

FBI Vault. “Osama bin Laden”

State Department. “Foreign Terrorist Organizations: Gama'a al-Islamiyya.” September 19, 2018.

Documentaries, Films and Series

11M: Terror in Madrid (Netflix)

9/11 (CNN Films)


9/11: Inside the Pentagon (PBS)

9/11: One Day in America (Hulu)

Ambush in Mogadishu (PBS)

Days That Shaped America (History)

Inside the Terror Network (PBS)

Manhunt: The Inside Story of the Hunt for Bin Laden (HBO)


Race Against Time: The CIA and 9/11 (CBS)

Road to 9/11 (History)


Revealed: The Hunt for bin Laden (History)


The Looming Tower (Hulu)


The Man Who Knew (PBS)

The Spymasters: CIA in the Crosshairs (CBS News)

Turning Point: 9/11 and the War on Terror (Netflix)

World Trade Center (Paramount Pictures)


Zero Dark Thirty (Sony Pictures)

Legal Documents

United States v. Jamal al-Badawi and Fahd al-Quso grand jury indictment

(2003 - USS Cole)

United States v. Rahman, et. al. August 16, 1999.


United States v. Ressam. May 4, 2012.

United States v. Usama bin Laden sealed grand jury indictment (1996)

United States v. Usama bin Laden superseding grand jury indictment (1998)

United States v. Usama bin Laden, et. al. grand jury indictment (2000 - Africa embassy bombings)

United States v. Yousef, April 4, 2003.

Online Resources

Carfax. “VIN Decoder & VIN Lookup.”

CIA Memo to Sudanese Major General Elfatih Erwa, delivered on March 8, 1996.

CIA World Factbook, “Afghanistan.”


CIA World Factbook, “Egypt.”


CIA World Factbook, “Kenya.”


CIA World Factbook, “Pakistan.”


CIA World Factbook. “Saudi Arabia.”


CIA World Factbook. “Sudan.”


CIA World Factbook. “Tanzania.”


CIA World Factbook. “Yemen.”

The Counter-Extremism Project: Al-Qaeda

The Counter-Extremism Project. “Omar Abdel-Rahman”


The Counter-Extremism Project. “Ramzi Yousef”


The Counter-Extremism Project. “The NCP in Sudan”


Encyclopedia Brittanica. “Al-Mahdi”


Encyclopedia Brittanica. “Sudan”


FBI “9/11 Investigation”


FBI “East African Embassy Bombings”


FBI “Millennium Plot / Ahmed Ressam”


FBI “USS Cole Bombing”


FBI “World Trade Center Bombing 1993”

Federation of American Scientists. “Statement by CIA and FBI on Arrest of Mir Aimal Kansi.” June 17, 1997.

Guinness World Records, “Operation Cyclone.”

Law Library - American Law and Legal Information. “El Sayyid Nosair Trial: 1991.”


Legal Information Institution. “Miranda Warning.”

The Rendition Project


Rewards for Justice. “Mir Aimal Kansi”

Statement by J. Gilmore Childers, Esq. and Henry J. DePippo, Esq. “Foreign Terrorists in America: Five Years After the World Trade Center.” Senate Judiciary Committee, Subcommittee on Technology, Terrorism and Government Information.  February 24, 1998.

Testimony of Cofer Black before the joint House/Senate Intelligence Committee hearing, September 26, 2002.


Transcript of Osama bin Laden interview with ABC News, May 1998.


United States Marines. “Marine Barracks Bombing at Beirut, Lebanon.” October 22, 2018.

Primary Documents

IntelWire: Minutes of Al Qaeda’s founding meetings, 1988.

Combating Terrorism Center: Al Qaeda’s Structure and Bylaws

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