top of page

Bibliography

This is the list of source material I used in researching Zero Hour: A History of 9/11.

Also, here is a list of what I consider to be the essential books about 9/11.

Articles

ABC News. "Terrorist's Letter Snagged By U.S." October 7, 2005.
https://abcnews.go.com/International/Terrorism/story?id=1192370

Kelli Arena. “Sources: Egyptian gets $27 million for Mohammed's arrest tip” CNN, March 12, 2003.

http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/03/12/shaikh.reward/index.html

Associated Press. “500 Are Believed Dead as Tanzania Ferry Sinks in Lake Victoria.” May 22, 1996.
https://www.nytimes.com/1996/05/22/world/500-are-believed-dead-as-tanzania-ferry-sinks-in-lake-victoria.html

Associated Press. "Property records suggest another alias for bin Laden aide." May 5, 2011.
https://news.yahoo.com/blogs/envoy/property-records-suggest-another-alias-bin-laden-aide-201312388.html

James Astill. “Osama: the Sudan years.” The Guardian, October 17, 2001.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2001/oct/17/afghanistan.terrorism3

Abdul Bari Atwan. “Inside Osama’s mountain lair.” The Guardian, November 12, 2001.
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2001/nov/12/afghanistan.terrorism1

Australian Broadcasting Corporation. “‘Carlos the Jackal’ sentenced to third life term for 1974 attack on Paris shopping arcade.” March 28, 2017.
https://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-03-29/carlos-the-jackal-sentenced-to-life-for-1974-attack/8396054

Michael Battles. “25 Years Later: Remembering Khobar Towers.” U.S. Air Force. June 25, 2021.
https://www.af.mil/News/Article-Display/Article/2671543/25-years-later-remembering-khobar-towers/

BBC News. “Sunnis and Shia in the Middle East.” December 19, 2013.
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-25434060

BBC News. “What is Sharia and how is it applied?” May 7, 2014.
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-27307249

BBC News. "Surviving the 2005 suicide bombings on Jordan hotels." November 9, 2015.
https://www.bbc.com/news/av/world-middle-east-34745196

BBC News. “Chechnya profile – Timeline.” January 17, 2018.

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-18190473

BBC News. “Lake Victoria Tanzania ferry disaster: Survivor found in air pocket.” September 22, 2018.
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-45611436

Daniel Benjamin and Steven Simon. “The New Face of Terrorism.” New York Times, January 4, 2000.
https://www.nytimes.com/2000/01/04/opinion/the-new-face-of-terrorism.html

Peter Bergen. “Five myths about Osama bin Laden.” Washington Post, May 6, 2011.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/five-myths-about-osama-bin-laden/2011/05/05/AFkG1rAG_story.html
 
Peter Bergen. “The cleric who altered the course of modern history.” CNN, February 19, 2017.
https://edition.cnn.com/2017/02/19/opinions/9-11-spiritual-guide-dies-bergen/

Peter Bergen. “The woman who was the first to warn about Osama bin Laden.” CNN, August 3, 2021.

https://www.cnn.com/2021/08/03/opinions/first-to-warn-about-bin-laden-bergen/index.html


Richard Bernstein. “Questioning Focuses on One Defendant.” New York Times, November 11, 1993.
https://www.nytimes.com/1993/11/11/nyregion/questioning-focuses-on-one-defendant.html

Richard Bernstein. “Explosion at the Twin Towers; 4 Are Convicted in Bombing at the World Trade Center That Killed 6, Stunned U.S.” New York Times, March 5, 1994.
https://www.nytimes.com/1994/03/05/nyregion/explosion-twin-towers-4-are-convicted-bombing-world-trade-center-that-killed-6.html

Preeti Bhattacharji. “Chechen Terrorism (Russia, Chechnya, Separatist),” Council on Foreign Relations. April 8, 2010.
https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/chechen-terrorism-russia-chechnya-separatist
 
Barbara Bodine. “9/11 Miniseries Is Bunk.” Los Angeles Times, September 8, 2006.
https://www.latimes.com/news/la-oe-bodine8sep08-story.html

Greg Botelho. “Sudanese Islamist leader, bin Laden ally Hassan al-Turabi dies.” CNN, March 5, 2016.
https://www.cnn.com/2016/03/05/africa/sudan-hassan-al-turabi-dies/

Mark Bowden. “The Legacy of Black Hawk Down.” Smithsonian Magazine, January/February 2019.
https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/legacy-black-hawk-down-180971000/

F. Brinley Bruton and Courtney Kube. “Suspected 9/11 Recruiter Mohammed Haymar Zammar captured in Syria,” NBC News, April 19, 2018.
https://www.nbcnews.com/news/world/suspected-9-11-recruiter-mohammed-haydar-zammar-captured-syria-report-n867376

The Business Standard. “Journalist who interviewed Osama bin Laden thrice, and told the tale.” November 2, 2020. 
https://www.tbsnews.net/world/journalist-who-interviewed-osama-bin-laden-thrice-and-told-tale-152788

Daniel L. Byman. “What Zarqawi’s Death Means for the Insurgency.” Brookings Institution, June 8, 2006.
https://www.brookings.edu/opinions/what-zarqawis-death-means-for-the-insurgency/

CBS News. "Desert One: Inside the failed 1980 hostage rescue in Iran." August 16, 2020.
https://www.cbsnews.com/news/desert-one-inside-the-failed-1980-hostage-rescue-in-iran/


Amos Chapple. “‘Welcome to Hell, Part II’: The Second Chechen War.” Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, October 1, 2019.
https://www.rferl.org/a/the-second-chechen-war-in-photos/30185257.html

CNN. “Khalid Sheikh Mohammed Fast Facts.” Updated December 21, 2022.
https://www.cnn.com/2013/02/03/world/meast/khalid-sheikh-mohammed-fast-facts/index.html

CNN. “U.S. missiles pound targets in Afghanistan, Sudan.” August 21, 1998.
http://www.cnn.com/US/9808/20/us.strikes.02/
 
CNN. “Rescuers search for life in rubble of Nairobi bomb attack.” August 8, 1998.
http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/africa/9808/07/africa.explosions.04/
 
CNN. “Bush acknowledges 1976 DUI charge.” November 2, 2000.
https://www.cnn.com/2000/ALLPOLITICS/stories/11/02/bush.dui/
 
CNN. “Suspect in USS Cole bombing kills self in Yemen.” February 14, 2002.
http://www.cnn.com/2002/WORLD/meast/02/13/yemen.alqaeda/

CNN. “Pakistani man executed for CIA killings.” November 15, 2002.
http://edition.cnn.com/2002/LAW/11/14/cia.killings.execution/index.html

CNN. "Pentagon: Saddam's sons killed in raid." July 22, 2003.
https://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/07/22/sprj.irq.sons/

CNN. “Jordan: Embassy bombers ‘cowards’” August 7, 2003.

http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/08/07/sprj.irq.embassy.blast/

CNN. “U.N. attack branded ‘ruthless’” August 19, 2003.
http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/08/19/sprj.irq.int.reaction/

CNN. "Al Qaeda-linked group takes credit for Saudi attack." December 7, 2004.
https://www.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/meast/12/06/jeddah.attack/

CNN. "Transcript: Confession by accused Jordan bomber." November 13, 2005.
https://web.archive.org/web/20051126165630/http://www.cnn.com/2005/WORLD/meast/11/13/jordan.confession/index.html

CNN. "'Bomber confession' shocks Jordan." November 14, 2005.
https://web.archive.org/web/20060206221253/http://www.cnn.com/2005/WORLD/meast/11/14/jordan.blasts/index.html

CNN. “Al-Zawahiri: Egyptian militant group joins al Qaeda.” August 5, 2006.

http://edition.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/meast/08/05/zawahiri.tape/index.html

CNN. “Osama bin Laden: Fast Facts.” April 27, 2021.
https://www.cnn.com/2013/08/30/world/osama-bin-laden-fast-facts/index.html

CNN. “Spain Train Bombings Fast Facts.” Updated February 21, 2023.
https://www.cnn.com/2013/11/04/world/europe/spain-train-bombings-fast-facts/index.html

CNN exit poll, 2004 presidential election
https://www.cnn.com/ELECTION/2004/pages/results/states/US/P/00/epolls.0.html
 
Council on Foreign Relations. “The Iraq War, 2003-2011.”
https://www.cfr.org/timeline/iraq-war

Council on Foreign Relations. “The U.S. War in Afghanistan, 1999-2020.”
https://www.cfr.org/timeline/us-war-afghanistan
 
Council on Foreign Relations. “The Sunni-Shia Divide.”
https://www.cfr.org/sunni-shia-divide/

Michael Daly. "Bin Laden's Life on the Run, Witnessed by Al Qaeda Child Bride." Daily Beast, July 11, 2017.
https://www.thedailybeast.com/bin-ladens-life-on-the-run-witnessed-by-al-qaeda-child-bride


Bette Dam. “The Secret Life of Mullah Omar,” Zomia Center, 2019.

https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5bf5692f4611a019a7c69ea6/t/5c77f4fdeef1a10b17f2abda/1551365379168/Secret+Life+of+Mullah+Omar-FINAL3.pdf
 
Robert M. Danin. “Remembering the Hama Massacre.” Council on Foreign Relations, February 2, 2012.
https://www.cfr.org/blog/remembering-hama-massacre
 
Anusuya Datta. “19 years to 9/11: Satellite images that captured the horrors.” Geospatial World, September 11, 2020.
https://www.geospatialworld.net/blogs/19-years-to-9-11-satellite-images-that-captured-the-horrors/

Karin Davies. “Ferry Disaster Survivors Blame Crew For Overcrowding.” Associated Press, May 23, 1996.
https://apnews.com/article/500bcf1b175176fae7e92727d44a5dab
 
Shane Drennan. “Constructing Takfir.” CTC Sentinel, June 2008, Vol 1, Issue 7.
https://ctc.westpoint.edu/constructing-takfir-from-abdullah-azzam-to-djamel-zitouni/
 
Richard L. Eldredge. “Where are they now? CNN’s Boys of Baghdad.” Atlanta Magazine. March 18, 2015.
https://www.atlantamagazine.com/90s/where-are-they-now-cnns-boys-of-baghdad/

Richard Engel. “Sadat’s Assassination Plotter Remains Unrepentant.” NBC News, July 5, 2011.
https://www.nbcnews.com/id/wbna43640995
 

David Ensor. “Drone may have spotted bin Laden in 2000.” CNN. March 17, 2004.

https://www.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/asiapcf/03/17/predator.video/

David Ensor. "Al Qaeda letter called 'chilling.'" CNN. October 12, 2005.
https://www.cnn.com/2005/WORLD/meast/10/11/alqaeda.letter/

Larisa Epatko. "Then and Now: Iraq's 'Blackwater Bridge.'" PBS Newshour. August 20, 2010.
https://www.pbs.org/newshour/world/then-and-now-euphrates-bridge-in-fallujah

Richard Ernsberger, Jr. "1983 Beirut barracks bombing: ‘The BLT Building is gone!’" HistoryNet, October 23, 2019.

https://www.marinecorpstimes.com/news/your-marine-corps/2019/10/23/1983-beirut-barracks-bombing-the-blt-building-is-gone/
 
William E. Farrell. “5 Sadat Assassins Executed in Egypt.” New York Times, April 16, 1982.
https://www.nytimes.com/1982/04/16/world/5-sadat-assassins-executed-in-egypt.html
 
Hassan M. Fattah and Michael Slackman. "3 Hotels Bombed in Jordan; At Least 57 Die." New York Times. November 10, 2005
https://www.nytimes.com/2005/11/10/world/middleeast/3-hotels-bombed-in-jordan-at-least-57-die.html

Federation of American Scientists. “al-Gama’at al-Islamiyya.” May 3, 2004.

https://fas.org/irp/world/para/ig.htm
 
Federation of American Scientists. “al-Jihad.” May 3, 2004.
https://fas.org/irp/world/para/jihad.htm

Federation of American Scientists. “The Bin Ladin Cell Phone Leak.” Secrecy News, Volume 2004, Issue No. 72. August 3, 2004.

https://sgp.fas.org/news/secrecy/2004/08/080304.html

Peter Finn, Joby Warrick and Julie Tate. “9/11 planner is recast as key asset for CIA.” Washington Post, August 29, 2009.
https://www.nbcnews.com/id/wbna32605529

Robert Fisk. “Anti-Soviet warrior puts his army on the road to peace.” The Independent, December 6, 1993.
https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/anti-soviet-warrior-puts-his-army-road-peace-saudi-businessman-who-recruited-mujahedin-now-uses-them-large-scale-building-projects-sudan-robert-fisk-met-him-almatig-1465715.html

Robert Fisk. “Arab rebel leaders warns the British: ‘Get out of the Gulf.’” The Independent, July 10, 1996.
https://www.independent.co.uk/news/long_reads/robert-fisk-osama-bin-laden-saudi-arabia-afghanistan-war-b1561291.html
 
Robert Fisk. “Muslim leaders warns of a new assault on US forces.” The Independent, March 22, 1997.
https://www.independent.co.uk/news/muslim-leader-warns-new-assault-us-forces-1274184.html
 
Robert Fisk. “Osama bin Laden: The godfather of terror?” The Independent, September 15, 2001.
https://web.archive.org/web/20110516050620/http://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/profiles/osama-bin-laden-the-godfather-of-terror-751944.html
 
Robert Fisk. “A close encounter with the man who shook the world.” The Independent. October 23, 2011.
https://www.independent.co.uk/voices/commentators/fisk/robert-fisk-close-encounter-man-who-shook-world-2278035.html

Tommy Franks. “War of Words,” New York Times, October 19, 2004.
https://www.nytimes.com/2004/10/19/opinion/war-of-words.html

Joseph P. Fried. “Case of Sheik and 9 Others Is Delivered To the Jury.” New York Times, September 24, 1995.
https://www.nytimes.com/1995/09/24/nyregion/case-of-sheik-and-9-others-is-delivered-to-the-jury.html
 
Joseph P. Fried. “The Terror Conspiracy: The Overview; Sheik And 9 Followers Guilty Of A Conspiracy Of Terrorism.” New York Times. October 2, 1995.
https://www.nytimes.com/1995/10/02/nyregion/terror-conspiracy-overview-sheik-9-followers-guilty-conspiracy-terrorism.html
 
Joseph P. Fried. “Sheikh Sentenced to Life in Prison in Bombing Plot.” New York Times, January 18, 1996.
https://www.nytimes.com/1996/01/18/nyregion/sheik-sentenced-to-life-in-prison-in-bombing-plot.html
 
Joseph P. Fried. “Kevin Thomas Duffy, U.S. Judge in Terrorism Cases, Dies at 87.” New York Times, April 1, 2020.
https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/01/nyregion/kevin-thomas-duffy-dead-coronavirus.html
 

Christopher J. Fuller. “The Origins of the Drone Program.” Lawfare, February 18, 2018.

https://www.lawfareblog.com/origins-drone-program


Kathy Gannon. "Bin Laden's trusted confidante identified." Associated Press, June 1, 2011.
https://www.nbcnews.com/id/wbna43242196

Jeffrey Gettleman. "Enraged Mob in Falluja Kills 4 American Contractors." New York Times. March 31, 2004.
https://www.nytimes.com/2004/03/31/international/worldspecial/enraged-mob-in-falluja-kills-4-american.html

Mohammad Ghazal. "10 Years after Amman bombings, war on terror 'remains our war.'" Jordan Times. November 9, 2015.
https://www.jordantimes.com/news/local/10-years-after-amman-bombings-war-terror-remains-our-war%E2%80%99

Malcolm Gladwell. “N.Y. Bomb Plotters Sentenced to Long Terms.” Washington Post, January 18, 1996.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/10/16/AR2007101600804_pf.html

GlobalSecurity.org. “BGM-109 Tomahawk – Operational Use.”
https://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/bgm-109-operation.htm 

Globalsecurity.org. “FIM-92A Stinger Weapons System: RMP & Basic.”
https://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/ground/stinger.htm
 
Adam Goldman and Kimberly Dozier. "Arrested U.S. official is actually CIA contractor." Associated Press, February 21, 2011.
https://www.nbcnews.com/id/wbna41707322

Doug Gross. "Twitter user unknowingly reported bin Laden attack." CNN, May 2, 2011.
http://www.cnn.com/2011/TECH/social.media/05/02/osama.twitter.reports/index.html

Michael Grunwald and Vernon Loeb. "Charges Filed Against bin Laden." Washington Post. November 5, 1998.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/inatl/longterm/eafricabombing/stories/binladen110598.htm


The Guardian. "Timeline: The Al Qaeda Tapes."
https://www.theguardian.com/alqaida/page/0,12643,839823,00.html

Rohan Gunaratna and Aviv Oreg, (2010) “Al Qaeda's Organizational Structure and its Evolution,” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 33: 12, 1043 — 1078.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1057610X.2010.523860
 
Clyde Haberman. “Despite Verdict, Kahane’s Son Says Defendant Deserves Death.” New York Times, December 23, 1991.
https://www.nytimes.com/1991/12/23/nyregion/despite-verdict-kahane-s-son-says-defendant-deserves-death.html

Ashrad Abdul Hamid. “Egypt puts key members of ‘al-Jama’a al-Islamiyya’ on terror list.” Al-Arabiya News, November 11, 2018.
https://english.alarabiya.net/News/middle-east/2018/11/11/Egypt-court-puts-Leaders-members-of-Jemaah-Islamiyah-on-terror-lists

Paul Hamilos and Mark Tran. “21 guilty, seven cleared over Madrid train bombings.” The Guardian, October 31, 2007.
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2007/oct/31/spain.marktran

Asad Hashim. "Leaked report shows Bin Laden's 'hidden life.'" Al Jazeera. July 8, 2013.
https://web.archive.org/web/20140430164359/http://www.aljazeera.com/news/asia/2013/07/20137813412615531.html

Tore Refslund Hamming. “Al Qaeda After Ayman al-Zawahiri.” Lawfare, April 11, 2021.

https://www.lawfareblog.com/al-qaeda-after-ayman-al-zawahiri
 
Andrew Higgins. “The War That Continues to Shape Russia, 25 Years Later.” New York Times, December 10, 2019.
https://www.nytimes.com/2019/12/10/world/europe/photos-chechen-war-russia.html

History Channel. “Terrorists bomb trains in Madrid.” February 9, 2010. 
https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/terrorists-bomb-trains-in-madrid

History Channel. “Russian forces enter Chechnya.” July 20, 2010.
https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/yeltsin-orders-russian-forces-into-chechnya

History Channel. “9/11 Timeline.” June 21, 2011.
https://www.history.com/topics/21st-century/9-11-timeline
 
Phil Hirschkorn. “Jury hears day-by-day account of embassy bombings.” CNN. May 2, 2001.
https://www.cnn.com/2001/LAW/05/02/embassy.bombings/index.html

Zahid Hussain. "Investigators track bin Laden's couriers." Wall Street Journal. June 1, 2011.
https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702304563104576357601886423360


InfoWorld. “Toshiba cuts prices of all notebook lines.” May 2, 1994. Page 33.
https://books.google.com/books?id=hDgEAAAAMBAJ&lpg=PA33

Irish Times, “Bin Laden’s deputy killed by US.” November 17, 2001.
https://www.irishtimes.com/news/bin-laden-s-deputy-killed-by-us-1.337711

Bart Jansen. “10 worst ferry disasters worldwide.” USA Today, April 16, 2014.
https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2014/04/16/ferry-disasters-philippines-senegal-bangladesh-red-sea/7771799/

Douglas Jehl. “C.I.A. Officers Played Role In Sheik Visas.” New York Times, July 22, 1993.
https://www.nytimes.com/1993/07/22/nyregion/cia-officers-played-role-in-sheik-visas.html
 

David Johnston. “How the F.B.I. Got Its Man, Half the World Away.” New York Times, June 19, 1997.

https://www.nytimes.com/1997/06/19/world/how-the-fbi-got-its-man-half-the-world-away.html

Randy Kennedy. “Pleas for Mercy, Statements of Defiance.” New York Times, January 18, 1996.
https://www.nytimes.com/1996/01/18/nyregion/pleas-for-mercy-statements-of-defiance.html

Glenn Kessler. “File the Bin Laden Phone Leak Under ‘Urban Myths.’” Washington Post, December 22, 2005.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/12/21/AR2005122101994.html

 

Glenn Kessler. “Bill Clinton and the missed opportunities to kill Osama bin Laden.” Washington Post, February 16, 2016.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/fact-checker/wp/2016/02/16/bill-clinton-and-the-missed-opportunities-to-kill-osama-bin-laden/
 

Glenn Kessler. “Was Khalid Sheikh Mohammed ‘waterboarded’ 183 times?” Washington Post, February 6, 2017.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/fact-checker/wp/2017/02/06/was-khalid-sheikh-mohammed-waterboarded-183-times/

Glenn Kessler. “The zombie claim that won’t die: The media exposed bin Laden’s phone.” Washington Post, August 2, 2018.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/fact-checker/wp/2018/08/02/the-zombie-claim-that-wont-die-the-media-exposed-bin-ladens-phone/


Glenn Kessler. "The Iraq War and WMDs: An intelligence failure or White House spin?" Washington Post. March 22, 2019.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2019/03/22/iraq-war-wmds-an-intelligence-failure-or-white-house-spin/

Azmat Khan. “Slideshow: An American’s Path to the Mumbai Attacks.” PBS Frontline, November 22, 2011.

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/article/slideshow-an-americans-path-to-the-mumbai-attacks/
 
Azmat Khan. “New Evidence of Pakistan’s Role in the Mumbai Attacks?” PBS Frontline, June 28, 2012.
https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/article/new-evidence-of-pakistans-role-in-the-mumbai-attacks/

Sumera Khan. "Two years on: Abottabad report remains out of sight." The Express Tribune. May 3, 2013.
https://web.archive.org/web/20140502031901/http://tribune.com.pk/story/543834/two-years-on-abbottabad-report-remains-out-of-sight/

Zarar Khan. “Hamid Gul dies at 78; former Pakistan intelligence chief.” Los Angeles Times, August 16, 2015.

https://www.latimes.com/local/obituaries/la-me-hamid-gul-20150817-story.html

Stephen P. Klett, Jr. “Toshiba expands its Satellite notebook line.” ComputerWorld. August 30, 1993. Page 41.
https://books.google.com/books?id=KtLsj-XIYpAC

Jason Koebler. “The Six-Letter Text Message That Led the CIA to the Mastermind of 9/11.” Vice News. December 9, 2014.
https://www.vice.com/en/article/qkvwqp/the-six-letter-text-message-that-led-the-cia-to-the-mastermind-of-911

Joseph Krauss. “Sudanese take aim at Islamist ‘deep state’ left by al-Bashir.” Associated Press, May 4, 2019.
https://apnews.com/article/omar-al-bashir-sudan-africa-middle-east-ap-top-news-495dd2ef57f2437da330b643b452acd1

Alan J. Kuperman. “The Stinger Missile and U.S. Intervention in Afghanistan.” Political Science Quarterly 114, no. 2 (1999): 219-63.
www.jstor.org/stable/2657738 

Bernard Lewis. “License to Kill: Usama bin Laden’s Declaration of Jihad.” Foreign Affairs, November/December 1998
https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/saudi-arabia/1998-11-01/license-kill-usama-bin-ladins-declaration-jihad
 
Tim Lister. "Abbottabad -- The military town where bin Laden hid in plain sight." CNN, May 2, 2011.
http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/asiapcf/05/02/bin.laden.abbottabad/index.html


Vernon Loeb. "U.S. Jury Indicts Bin Laden on Terrorism Charges." Washington Post, August 25, 1998.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/inatl/longterm/eafricabombing/stories/binladen082598.htm

Scott MacLeod. “The Paladin of Jihad.” TIME, May 6, 1996. Vol. 147, No. 19.

https://time.com/vault/issue/1996-05-06/page/51/

Dittmar Machule commentary, The Guardian, September 11, 2002.
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2002/sep/11/september112002.september1144
 
Mark Mazetti. "C.I.A. Takes On Bigger and Riskier Role on Front Lines." New York Times. December 31, 2009.
https://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/01/world/asia/01khost.html


Mapping Militant Organizations. “Al Jama’a al-Islamiya.” Stanford University. August 1, 2012.

https://web.stanford.edu/group/mappingmilitants/cgi-bin/groups/view/265?highlight=April+19

Jerry Markon. “Capturing Bin Laden on Camera.” Washington Post, July 30, 2008.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/07/29/AR2008072902429.html

Jane Mayer. “Junior.” The New Yorker, September 3, 2006.
https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2006/09/11/junior

Jane Mayer, “The Unidentified Queen of Torture,” The New Yorker. December 18, 2014.
https://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/unidentified-queen-torture
 
Terry McDermott. “The Mastermind: Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and the making of 9/11.” The New Yorker, September 6, 2010.
https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2010/09/13/the-mastermind

Robert D. McFadden. “New Investigations Asked in Wake of Kahane Trial.” New York Times, December 24, 1991.
https://www.nytimes.com/1991/12/24/nyregion/new-investigations-asked-in-wake-of-kahane-trial.html

James C. McKinley Jr. “Two U.S. Embassies in East Africa Bombed.” New York Times, August 8, 1998.
https://www.nytimes.com/library/world/africa/080898africa-bombing.html

Kevin McMurray. “Cofer Black, Out of the Shadows.” Men’s Journal, November 20, 2013.
https://www.mensjournal.com/health-fitness/cofer-black-out-of-the-shadows-20131120/

James Gordon Meek. “FBI's Most Wanted Terrorists 15 Years Later: The Ones Who Got Away.” ABC News, October 25, 2016.
https://abcnews.go.com/International/fbis-wanted-terrorists-15-years/story?id=43028355

Lisa Meyers. “Osama bin Laden: missed opportunities.” NBC News, March 17, 2004.

https://www.nbcnews.com/id/wbna4549030

Military.com. "Today in History - Saddam Hussein's Sons Killed."
https://www.military.com/video/operations-and-strategy/iraqi-war/today-in-history-saddam-husseins-sons-killed/4975495541001

Joe Miller. “Clinton Passed on Killing bin Laden?” Factcheck.org, January 18, 2008.

https://www.factcheck.org/2008/01/clinton-passed-on-killing-bin-laden/

John Miller. “Greetings, America. My Name is Osama bin Laden.” Esquire, February 1999.
https://www.esquire.com/news-politics/a1813/osama-bin-laden-interview/

Alison Mitchell. “A Sixth Suspect Charged in Blast.” New York Times, May 7, 1993.
https://www.nytimes.com/1993/05/07/nyregion/a-sixth-suspect-charged-in-blast.html
 
Alison Mitchell. “U.S. Detains Cleric Linked to Militants.” New York Times, July 3, 1993.
https://www.nytimes.com/1993/07/03/us/us-detains-cleric-linked-to-militants.html

Rolf Mowatt-Larsen. “Al Qaeda’s Pursuit of Weapons of Mass Destruction,” Foreign Policy. January 25, 2010.
https://foreignpolicy.com/2010/01/25/al-qaedas-pursuit-of-weapons-of-mass-destruction/

Steven Lee Myers. “U.S. FURY ON 2 CONTINENTS: THE WEAPONS; Dozens of Ship-Launched Cruise Missiles Strike at Same Moment, 2,500 Miles Apart.” New York Times, August 21, 1998.
https://www.nytimes.com/1998/08/21/world/us-fury-2-continents-weapons-dozens-ship-launched-cruise-missiles-strike-same.html

Donovan Myrie and Emilee Speck. “How an Orlando inspector stopped the fifth hijacker on Flight 93.” WKMG ClickOrlando, September 12, 2018.
https://www.clickorlando.com/news/2018/09/12/how-an-orlando-inspector-stopped-the-fifth-hijacker-on-flight-93/

Adam Nagourney. "Kerry Says bin Laden Tape Gave Bush a Lift."
New York Times. January 31, 2005.https://www.nytimes.com/2005/01/31/politics/kerry-says-bin-laden-tape-gave-bush-a-lift.html

Elizabeth Nash. “Madrid bombers ‘were inspired by Bin Laden address.’” The Independent, November 7, 2006.

Andrew Natsios. “Behind the Foiled Sudan Coup,” U.S. News & World Report. November 26, 2012.
https://www.usnews.com/opinion/blogs/world-report/2012/11/26/sudans-bashir-government-faces-more-problems-after-failed-coup

NBC News. “Timeline of al-Qaida statements.” April 15, 2004.
https://www.nbcnews.com/id/wbna4686034
 
NBC News. “Al-Qaida leaders, associates.” April 23, 2004.
https://www.nbcnews.com/id/wbna4686491

NBC News. “Last Spanish combat troops leave Iraq” April 27, 2004. 
https://www.nbcnews.com/id/wbna4845463

New York Times. “Specter of Terror: The Suspects; Arrested in Yesterday’s Raid.” June 25, 1993.
https://www.nytimes.com/1993/06/25/nyregion/specter-of-terror-the-suspects-arrested-in-yesterday-s-raid.html

Adam Nossiter. “The Taliban Think They Have Already Won, Peace Deal or Not.” New York Times, March 30, 2021.
https://www.nytimes.com/2021/03/30/world/asia/taliban-victory-afghanistan.html

NPR. “Profile: Two Senior Al-Qaeda Leaders Give Interviews to Al-Jazeera.” September 13, 2002.
https://legacy.npr.org/programs/morning/transcripts/2002/sep/020913.seelye.html

NPR. "Transcript: Obama's Speech Against the Iraq War." October 2, 2002.
https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=99591469

NPR. "Timeline of Saddam Hussein's Capture."
https://legacy.npr.org/news/specials/iraq2003/saddam_capture.031214.html


The Observer. “Distant voices, still lives, 08:00-09:35.”

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2002/aug/18/september11.usa3

Mitchell Owens. “Laura and George W. Bush’s House in Texas.” Architectural Digest, August 2014.
https://www.architecturaldigest.com/story/laura-and-george-w-bush-prairie-chapel-ranch-texas-article
 
David B. Ottaway and Steve Coll. "Retracing the Steps of a Terror Suspect." Washington Post, June 4, 1995.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1995/06/05/retracing-the-steps-of-a-terror-suspect/8d0c4e23-19e4-4dc5-80f0-f002029d2d9f/

PBS Frontline. “Osama bin Laden: A Chronology of His Political Life.”

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/binladen/etc/cron.html
 
PBS Frontline. "The High-Risk Contracting Business."
https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/warriors/contractors/highrisk.html


Tom Perry. “In free Egypt, Jihad leader says time for gun is over.” Reuters, March 18, 2011.

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-egypt-islamist-militancy/in-free-egypt-jihad-leader-says-time-for-gun-is-over-idUSTRE72H62820110318

Pew Research Center. “Mapping the Global Muslim Population.” October 7, 2009.
https://www.pewresearch.org/religion/2009/10/07/mapping-the-global-muslim-population/

Todd R. Phinney. “Airpower versus Terrorism: Three Case Studies.” Air University Press, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama. 2003. 
https://media.defense.gov/2017/Dec/27/2001861438/-1/-1/0/T_0009_PHINNEY_AIRPOWER_VERSUS_TERRORISM.PDF

Popular Mechanics. “Debunking the 9/11 Myths: Special Report: The World Trade Center.”
https://www.popularmechanics.com/military/a6384/debunking-911-myths-world-trade-center/
 
Julia Preston. “Omar Abdel Rahman, Blind Cleric Found Guilty of Plot to Wage ‘War of Urban Terrorism,’ Dies at 78.” New York Times, February 18, 2017.
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/18/world/middleeast/omar-abdel-rahman-dead.html

Selwyn Raab. “Jury Acquits Defendant in Kahane Trial.” New York Times, December 22, 1991.
https://www.nytimes.com/1991/12/22/nyregion/jury-acquits-defendant-in-kahane-trial.html

Sudarsan Raghavan. “Alleged architect of U.S. Embassy bombings killed.” Washington Post, June 11, 2011.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/africa/architect-of-us-embassy-bombings-killed/2011/06/11/AG9jgbQH_story.html
 
Bruce Reidel. “Trump’s Saddam: Terror killer or terror patron?” Brookings Institution, July 11, 2016.
https://www.brookings.edu/opinions/trumps-saddam-terror-killer-or-terror-patron/

Fernando Reinares. “Why did the Madrid train bombings divide, not unite Spaniards?” Real Instituto Elcano, March 11, 2015.
https://www.realinstitutoelcano.org/en/archive/opinion/why-did-the-madrid-train-bombings-divide-not-unite-spaniards/

Reuters. “CHRONOLOGY - The deadliest bomb attacks in Iraq.” February 12, 2007.
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-iraq-bombings-chronology/chronology-the-deadliest-bomb-attacks-in-iraq-idUSL1285703920070212

Reuters. "Factbox: Iraq war, the notable quotes." March 11, 2008.
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-iraq-war-quotes/factbox-iraq-war-the-notable-quotes-idUSL212762520080311/

Reuters. “Factbox: Previous limited U.S. strikes were followed by unforeseen consequences.” September 4, 2013.

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-syria-crisis-consequences-factbox/factbox-previous-limited-u-s-strikes-were-followed-by-unforeseen-consequences-idUSBRE98306O20130904

Reuters. “Sudan’s former PM Sadiq al-Mahdi dies from coronavirus.” November 25, 2020.
https://www.reuters.com/article/uk-sudan-politics-idUKKBN28604W

Brian Ross and David Scott. “Qatari Royal Family Linked to Al Qaeda.” ABC News, January 7, 2006.
https://abcnews.go.com/WNT/story?id=129838&page=1

Sebastian Rotella. “Trial Testimony Intensifies Allegations Pakistan Is Playing Double Game.” ProPublica, May 23, 2011.
https://www.propublica.org/article/chicago-trial-focuses-on-pakistans-role-in-terrorism

Lily Rothman. “How TIME Secured Its First Interview with Osama bin Laden.” TIME, November 24, 2014.
https://time.com/3598204/osama-bin-laden-history/

Peter Rutland. “Putin’s Path to Power.” Post-Soviet Affairs, vol. 16, no.4, December 2000, pp. 313-54.
http://prutland.faculty.wesleyan.edu/files/2015/08/Putins-path-to-power.pdf

Mark Schone and Rehab El-Buri, “Fort Hood: Hasan Asked Awlaki If It Was Okay to Kill American Soldiers.” ABC News,  December 23, 2009.
https://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/FtHoodInvestigation/fort-hood-hasan-asked-awlaki-kill-american-soldiers/story?id=9410718

Ian Shapira. "The frantic effort to save lives after a deadly attack on the CIA." Washington Post. December 30, 2019.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/the-frantic-effort-to-save-lives-after-a-deadly-attack-on-the-cia/2019/12/29/275b828c-2729-11ea-ad73-2fd294520e97_story.html

Michael Slackman, “Bin Laden kin worry about terrorist’s wife, children,” Los Angeles Times, November 13, 2001.

https://www.chicagotribune.com/sns-worldtrade-binladen-family-lat-story.html
 
Hussain Shaheed Soherwordi. “Pakistan-US Policies on the ‘War on Terror’ and the Taliban: Allies at Loggerheads.” Pakistan Horizon 63, no. 2 (2010): 51-67. http://www.jstor.org/stable/24711085
 
Mike Sims. “Transcript: The Yasin Interview.” 60 Minutes. June 2, 2002.
https://www.cbsnews.com/news/transcript-the-yasin-interview/

Tim Skoog, Meghna Chakrabarti and Dorey Scheimer. “First Person: The CIA’s Former Counterterrorism Chief on the Lead Up to 9/11.” WBUR, October 13, 2020.
https://www.wbur.org/onpoint/2020/10/13/radio-diary-cofer-black

Vivian Elizabeth Smyrl. “Crawford, TX,” Texas State Historical Association.
https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/crawford-tx

Missy Sullivan and Sydney Trattner. “This Man Helped Thwart the Biggest Terror Arrack That Almost Happened.” History Channel, September 11, 2017.
https://www.history.com/news/this-man-helped-thwart-the-biggest-terror-attack-that-almost-happened

Ronald Sullivan. “Judge Gives Maximum Term in Kahane Case.” New York Times, January 30, 1992.
https://www.nytimes.com/1992/01/30/nyregion/judge-gives-maximum-term-in-kahane-case.html

Liz Sly, “This is the man who recruited the 9/11 hijackers.” Washington Post, November 30, 2018.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/world/wp/2018/11/30/feature/this-is-the-man-who-recruited-the-9-11-hijackers/

Philip Taubman, “Soviet Lists Afghan War Toll: 13,310 Dead, 35,478 Wounded.” New York Times, May 26, 1988.
https://www.nytimes.com/1988/05/26/world/soviet-lists-afghan-war-toll-13310-dead-35478-wounded.html
 
Bernard W. Tate. “Pentagon survivors tell their stories.” Army.mil. August 20, 2012.
https://www.army.mil/article/65490/pentagon_survivors_tell_their_stories

Magnus Taylor. “Hassan al-Turabi’s Islamist Legacy in Sudan.” International Crisis Group, March 10, 2016.
https://www.crisisgroup.org/africa/horn-africa/sudan/hassan-al-turabi-s-islamist-legacy-sudan

Bill Trott. “‘Blind sheikh’ convicted in 1993 World Trade bombing dies in U.S. prison.” Reuters, February 18, 2017.
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-tradecenter-rahman/blind-sheikh-convicted-in-1993-world-trade-bombing-dies-in-u-s-prison-idUSKBN15X0KU

Craig Turner. “Egypt’s Leader Survives Assassination Attempt : Africa: Muslim extremists suspected in attack on Mubarak’s motorcade in Ethiopia. President is unharmed.” Los Angeles Times, June 27, 1995.
https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1995-06-27-mn-17703-story.html

U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. “Iraq 2003.”
https://www.ohchr.org/en/about-us/memorial/iraq-2003

University of Pittsburgh. “Anatomy of a Terrorist Attack: An In-Depth Investigation into the 1998 Bombings of the U.S. Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania.” Spring 2005. 
https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/26356/05_anatomy_terr_attack.pdf

U.S. Army. "Operation Red Dawn nets Saddam Hussein." December 6, 2013.
https://www.army.mil/article/116559/operation_red_dawn_nets_saddam_hussein

U.S. Army Airborne and Special Operations Museum. "Operation Eagle Claw."
https://www.asomf.org/operation-eagle-claw/

USA Today. “Red Dawn imitated art.” December 17, 2003.

http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/life/movies/2003-12-17-red-dawn_x.htm

Karl Vick. “Nairobi Rescuers Search for Signs of Life.” Washington Post, August 9, 1998.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/inatl/longterm/eafricabombing/stories/nairobi080998.htm

Marcus Walker and James M. Dorsey. “A Student’s Dreams or a Terrorist’s Plot?” Wall Street Journal, September 18, 2001.
https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB1000774372551721800

Wall Street Journal. “Daniel Pearl’s Abduction: A Chronology of Events” February 22, 2002. 
https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB1013119414239701000

Wall Street Journal. “Reporter Daniel Pearl Is Dead, Killed by His Captors in Pakistan” February 24, 2002.
https://www.wsj.com/public/resources/documents/pearl-022102.htm

Katie Walmsley, “9/11 Anniversary: Survivor Reflects on Escaping Death.” ABC News. September 9, 2011.
https://abcnews.go.com/US/September_11/911-anniversary-survivor-reflects-escaping-death/story?id=14479161

Declan Walsh. "Osama bin Laden hideout 'worth far less than U.S. claimed.'" The Guardian. May 4, 2011.
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/may/04/osama-bin-laden-hideout-worth

Declan Walsh. “Three Decades After His Coup, Sudan’s Former Ruler Is Held to Account.” New York Times, July 21, 2020.

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/21/world/africa/sudan-omar-hassan-al-bashir-coup-trial.html

Joby Warrick and Pamela Constable. "CIA base attacked in Afghanistan supported airstrikes against al-Qaeda, Taliban." Washington Post. January 1, 2010.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/12/31/AR2009123100541.html

Washington Post. “Dar Es Salaam Bombing Map.”
https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/inatl/longterm/eafricabombing/maps/salaammap.htm
 
Washington Post. "Following the courier."
https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/special/world/timeline-bin-laden-courier/

Washington Post. “Nairobi Bombing Map.”

https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/inatl/longterm/eafricabombing/maps/nairobimap.htm

Tim Weiner. “Killer of Two at C.I.A. Draws Death Sentence.” New York Times, January 24, 1998.

https://www.nytimes.com/1998/01/24/us/killer-of-two-at-cia-draws-death-sentence.html

Benjamin Weiser. "Mastermind Gets Life for Bombing of Trade Center." New York Times,  January 9, 1998.
https://www.nytimes.com/1998/01/09/nyregion/mastermind-gets-life-for-bombing-of-trade-center.html

Benjamin Weiser. “Prosecutors Are Expected to Seek Dismissal of Charges Against Bin Laden.” New York Times, May 3, 2011.

https://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/04/nyregion/with-bin-ladens-death-seeking-the-dismissal-of-all-charges.html

Craig Whitlock. “Probe of USS Cole Bombing Unravels.” Washington Post, May 4, 2008.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/05/03/AR2008050302047.html

Christopher Woody. “‘A fighting war with the main enemy’: How the CIA helped land a mortal blow to the Soviets in Afghanistan 32 years ago,” Business Insider, October 2, 2018.
https://www.businessinsider.com/32-year-anniversary-of-first-stinger-missile-use-in-afghanistan-2018-9

Bob Woodward. "Death of Osama bin Laden: Phone call pointed U.S. to compound - and to 'the pacer,'" Washington Post, May 6, 2011.
https://web.archive.org/web/20130329030650/http://articles.washingtonpost.com/2011-05-06/world/35232344_1_lines-or-internet-service-abbottabad-osama-bin-laden

Robert F. Worth. "Blast Destroys Shrine in Iraq, Setting Off Sectarian Fury." New York Times. February 22, 2006.
https://www.nytimes.com/2006/02/22/international/middleeast/blast-destroys-shrine-in-iraq-setting-off-sectarian.html

Christopher S. Wren. “U.S. Jury Convicts 3 in a Conspiracy to Bomb Airliners.” New York Times, September 6, 1996.

https://www.nytimes.com/1996/09/06/nyregion/us-jury-convicts-3-in-a-conspiracy-to-bomb-airliners.html

Lawrence Wright, “The Counter-Terrorist.” The New Yorker, January 6, 2002.
https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2002/01/14/the-counter-terrorist

Lawrence Wright, “The Agent,” The New Yorker. July 10, 2006.
https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2006/07/10/the-agent

Robin Wright and John-Thor Dahlburg. “Legwork, Luck Closed Net Around Bombing Suspect : Manhunt: A mysterious informer’s tip capped an intense search for alleged mastermind of trade center blast.” Los Angeles Times, February 12, 1995.
https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1995-02-12-mn-31228-story.html

Nancy A. Youssef. "Taliban infiltrator who killed 7 from CIA wore Afghan uniform." McClatchy Newspapers. December 31, 2009.
https://web.archive.org/web/20100104211725/http://www.mcclatchydc.com/227/story/81543.html


Micah Zenko. “When Reagan Cut and Run.” Foreign Policy, February 7, 2014.

https://foreignpolicy.com/2014/02/07/when-reagan-cut-and-run/

Books

Abdullah Anas with Tam Hussein. To the Mountains: My Life in Jihad, from Algeria to Afghanistan. (London: Hurst & Company, 2019)

William M. Arkin. On That Day: The Definitive Timeline of 9/11. (New York: Public Affairs, 2021)

Abdel Bari Atwan. The Secret History of Al Qaeda. (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2006)
 
Abdel Bari Atwan. After Bin Laden: Al Qaeda, The Next Generation. (New York: The New Press, 2012)

Peter Baker. Days of Fire: Bush and Cheney in the White House. (New York: Anchor Books, 2013)

Milt Bearden and James Risen. The Main Enemy: The Inside Story of the CIA's Final Showdown with the KGB. (New York: Random House, 2003)

Daniel Benjamin and Steven Simon. The Age of Sacred Terror. (New York: Random House, 2002)

Peter L. Bergen. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden. (New York: Touchstone, 2001)
 
Peter L. Bergen. The Osama bin Laden I Know: An Oral History of Al Qaeda’s Leader. (New York: Free Press, 2006)
 
Peter L. Bergen. The Longest War: The Enduring Conflict Between America and Al-Qaeda. (New York: Free Press, 2011)
 
Peter L. Bergen. Manhunt: The Ten-Year Search for Bin Laden from 9/11 to Abbottabad. (New York: Crown Publishers, 2012)

Peter L. Bergen. The Rise and Fall of Osama bin Laden. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2021)
 
Gary Berntsen and Ralph Pezzullo. Jawbreaker: The Attack on Bin Laden and Al-Qaeda: A Personal Account by the CIA's Key Field Commander. (New York: Crown Publishers, 2005)

Omar bin Laden, Najwa bin Laden, Jean Sasson. Growing Up bin Laden: Osama’s Wife and Son Take Us Inside Their Secret World. (New York: St. Martin's Publishing Group, 2009)
 
Mark Bowden. Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War. (New York: Grove Press, 1999)

Mark Bowden. The Finish: The Killing of Osama bin Laden. (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2012)

John O. Brennan. Undaunted: My Fight Against America's Enemies, at Home and Abroad. (New York: Celadon Books, 2020)

George W. Bush. Decision Points. (New York: Crown Publishers, 2010)

Prudence Bushnell. Terrorism, Betrayal, and Resilience: My Story of the 1998 U.S. Embassy Bombings. (New York: Potomac Books, 2018)

Daniel Byman. Al Qaeda, the Islamic State, and the Global Jihadist Movement: What Everyone Needs to Know. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2015)

Gerard Chaliand and Arnaud Blin. (Eds.) The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to Al Qaeda. (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2007)

Richard A. Clarke. Against All Enemies: Inside America’s War on Terror. (New York: Free Press, 2004)

Steve Coll. Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan and Bin Laden from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001. (New York: Penguin Press, 2004)
 
Steve Coll. The Bin Ladens: An Arabian Family in the American Century. (New York: Penguin Books, 2008)
 
Robert Draper. To Start a War: How the Bush Administration Took America Into Iraq. (New York: Penguin Press, 2020)

David Dunbar and Brad Reagan, eds. Debunking 9/11 Myths: Why Conspiracy Theories Can't Stand Up to the Facts. (New York: Hearst Books, 2011)

Jim Dwyer and Kevin Flynn. 102 Minutes: The Unforgettable Story of the Fight to Survive Inside the Twin Towers. (New York: Times Books, 2005)

Robert M. Gates. From the Shadows: The Ultimate Insider's Story of Five Presidents and How They Won the Cold War. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996)

Barton Gellman. Angler: The Cheney Vice Presidency. (New York: Penguin Press, 2008)

Fawaz A. Gerges. The Far Enemy: Why Jihad Went Global. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005)

Fawaz A. Gerges. The Rise and Fall of Al-Qaeda. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011)

Garrett M. Graaf. The Only Plane in the Sky: An Oral History of 9/11. (New York: Avid Reader Press, 2019)

Marcela Grad. Massoud: An Intimate Portrait of the Legendary Afghan Leader. (New York: Webster University Press, 2009)

Robert L. Grenier. 88 Days to Kandahar: A CIA Diary. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015)

Imtiaz Gul. The Most Dangerous Place: Pakistan's Lawless Frontier. (New York: Penguin Group, 2010)

Rohan Gunaratna. Inside Al Qaeda: Global Network of Terror. (New York: Penguin Group, 2002)

Rohan Gunaratna and Khuram Iqbal. Pakistan: Terrorism Ground Zero. (London: Reaktion Books, 2011)

Mustafa Hamid and Leah Farrall. The Arabs at War in Afghanistan. (London: Hurst & Company, 2015)

Thomas Hegghammer. The Caravan: Abdallah Azzam and the Rise of Global Jihad. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020)

Bruce Hoffman. Inside Terrorism. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2006)
 
Raymond Ibrahim (ed.). The Al Qaeda Reader. (New York: Broadway Books, 2007)

Nelly Lahoud. The Bin Laden Papers: How the Abbottabad Raid Revealed the Truth About Al Qaeda, Its Leader and His Family. (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 2022)

Kirk S. Lippold. Front Burner: Al Qaeda's Attack on the U.S.S. Cole. (New York: Public Affairs, 2012)

Jane Mayer. The Dark Side: The Inside Story of How the War on Terror Turned into a War on American Ideals. (New York: Doubleday, 2008)

Terry McDermott. Perfect Soldiers: The Hijackers: Who They Were, Why They Did It. (New York: Harper Collins, 2005)
 
Terry McDermott and Josh Meyer. The Hunt for KSM: Inside the Pursuit and Takedown of the Real 9/11 Mastermind. (New York: Little Brown and Company, 2012)
 
Michael Morrell with Bill Harlow. The Great War of Our Time: The CIA’s Fight Against Terrorism from Al Qa’ida to ISIS. (New York: Twelve, 2015)
 
Barack Obama. A Promised Land. (New York: Crown, 2020)
 
Leon Panetta and Jim Newton. Worthy Fights: A Memoir of Leadership in War and Peace. (New York: Penguin Books, 2014)

Robert A. Pape. Dying to Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism. (New York: Random House, 2005)

Joseph Pfeifer. Ordinary Heroes: A Memoir of 9/11. (New York: Portfolio/Penguin, 2021)

Jonathan Randal. Osama: The Making of a Terrorist. (New York: Random House, 2004)

Simon Reeve. The New Jackals: Ramzi Yousef, Osama bin Laden and the Future of Terrorism. (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1999)

Bruce Reidel. Deadly Embrace: Pakistan, America and the Future of the Global Jihad. (Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2011)

Michael Scheuer. Osama bin Laden. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011).

Gary C. Schroen. First In: An Insider's Account of How the CIA Spearheaded the War on Terror in Afghanistan. (New York: Random House, 2005)

Cathy Scott-Clark and Adrian Levy. The Exile: The Stunning Inside Story of Osama bin Laden and Al-Qaeda in Flight. (New York: Bloomsbury, 2017)
 
Ali H. Soufan, with Daniel Freedman. The Black Banners: The Inside Story of 9/11 and the War Against Al Qaeda. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2011)
 
Ali Soufan. Anatomy of Terror: From the Death of bin Laden to the Rise of the Islamic State. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2017)

George Tenet with Bill Harlow. At the Center of the Storm: My Years at the CIA. (New York: HarperCollins, 2007)

Chris Wallace with Mitch Weiss. Countdown Bin Laden: The Untold Story of the 247-Day Hunt to Bring the Mastermind of 9/11 to Justice. (New York: Avid Reader Press, 2021)

Joby Warrick. The Triple Agent: The Al-Qaeda Mole Who Infiltrated the CIA. (New York: Penguin RandomHouse, 2011)

Joby Warrick. Black Flags: The Rise of ISIS. (New York: Doubleday, 2015)

Tim Weiner. Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA. (New York: Random House, 2007)

Tim Weiner. Enemies: A History of the FBI. (New York: Random House, 2012)

Murray Weiss. The Man Who Warned America: The Life and Death of John O'Neill, the FBI's Embattled Counterterror Warrior. (New York: HarperCollins, 2003)

Chris Whipple. The Spy Masters: How the CIA Directors Shape History and the Future. (New York: Scribner, 2020)

Bob Woodward. Bush at War. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002)
 
Bob Woodward. Plan of Attack. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004) 
 
Bob Woodward. Obama’s Wars. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2010)
 
Lawrence Wright. The Looming Tower: Al Qaeda and the Road to 9/11. (New York: Vintage Books, 2006)

Lawrence Wright. The Terror Years. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2016)


Government Reports and Documents

9/11 Commission Report
https://9-11commission.gov/report/


9/11 Commission: 9/11 and Terrorist Travel
https://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/staff_statements/911_TerrTrav_Monograph.pdf


9/11 Commission Hearings
https://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/hearings/index.htm


Abbottabad Commission Report
https://dataspace.princeton.edu/handle/88435/dsp01jq085k07t


Report of the Accountability Review Boards. “Dar Es Salaam: Discussion and Findings”

https://fas.org/irp/threat/arb/board_daressalaam.html

 

Report of the Accountability Review Boards. “Nairobi: Discussion and Findings”

https://fas.org/irp/threat/arb/board_nairobi.html


Gina Bennett. “The Wandering Mujahidin: Armed and Dangerous.” United States Department of State Bureau of Intelligence and Research, August 21-22, 1993.

http://www.nationalsecuritymom.com/3/WanderingMujahidin.pdf


CIA Memo to Sudanese Major General Elfatih Erwa, delivered on March 8, 1996.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/nation/specials/attacked/transcripts/sudanmemotext_100301.html
 

Richard Clarke. “Strategy for Eliminating the Threat from the Jihadist Networks of al Qida: Status and Prospects.” December 2000.

https://nsarchive2.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB147/clarke%20attachment.pdf

Clinton Digital Library. “PDD 39 – U.S. Policy on Counterterrorism.” June 21, 1995.

https://clinton.presidentiallibraries.us/items/show/12755

FBI. “Artifact of the Month: Richard Reid’s Shoes.” December 20, 2020.

https://www.fbi.gov/history/artifact-of-the-month/december-2020-richard-reids-shoes


FBI “9/11 Investigation”
https://www.fbi.gov/history/famous-cases/911-investigation
 
FBI “East African Embassy Bombings”
https://www.fbi.gov/history/famous-cases/east-african-embassy-bombings
 
FBI “Millennium Plot / Ahmed Ressam”
https://www.fbi.gov/history/famous-cases/millennium-plot-ahmed-ressam
 
FBI “USS Cole Bombing”
https://www.fbi.gov/history/famous-cases/uss-cole-bombing
 
FBI “World Trade Center Bombing 1993”
https://www.fbi.gov/history/famous-cases/world-trade-center-bombing-1993

FBI. "Terrorism in the United States: 1998"
https://nsarchive2.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB55/fbiterrorism98.pdf


House and Senate Intelligence Committees Joint Inquiry Report on 9/11 Attacks
https://www.intelligence.senate.gov/sites/default/files/publications/CRPT-107srpt351-5.pdf

Declassified 28 pages from House/Senate Intelligence Committee Report
https://web.archive.org/web/20160715183528/http://intelligence.house.gov/sites/intelligence.house.gov/files/documents/declasspart4.pdf


National Institute of Standards and Technology World Trade Center investigation
https://www.nist.gov/world-trade-center-investigation


National Transportation Safety Board 9/11 Documents
https://nsarchive2.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB196/index.htm


State.gov. “U.S. Department of State Annual Report on International Religious Freedom for 1999: Tanzania.” September 9, 1999.

https://1997-2001.state.gov/global/human_rights/irf/irf_rpt/1999/irf_tanzania99.html

 

State.gov. “Remembering the 1998 Embassy Bombings.” August 3, 2018.

https://www.state.gov/remembering-the-1998-embassy-bombings-2/


WMD Commission Report
https://irp.fas.org/offdocs/wmdcomm.html

Documentaries, Films, and Series

102 Minutes That Changed America (History Channel)
9/11 (CNN)
9/11: Escape from the Towers (History Channel)
9/11: Four Flights (History Channel)
9/11: One Day in America (National Geographic)
9/11: The Final Minutes of Flight 93 (History Channel)
Bin Laden's Hard Drive (National Geographic)
Days That Shaped America, Episode 4: September 11th (History Channel)
Final Hours: America's Longest War (Hulu)
Manhunt (HBO)
Race Against Time: The CIA and 9/11 (CBS)
Revealed: The Hunt for Bin Laden (History Channel)
Road to 9/11 (History Channel)
Spy Ops, Episode 1: Operation Jawbreaker (Netflix)
The Day the Towers Fell (History Channel)
The Looming Tower (Hulu)
The Man Who Knew (PBS Frontline)
The Seventies, Episode 7: Terrorism at Home and Abroad (CNN)
The Nineties, Episode 4: New World Order (CNN)
The Nineties, Episode 6: Terrorism Hits Home (CNN)
The 2000s, Episode 3: Mission Accomplished (CNN)
The Spymasters: CIA in the Crosshairs (Showtime)
Turning Point: 9/11 and the War on Terror (Netflix)
United 93 (Universal Pictures)
World Trade Center (Paramount Pictures)
Zero Dark Thirty (Columbia Pictures)

Legal Documents

U.S. v. Usama bin Laden (1998)
Handed up and sealed in August of 1998, unsealed in November of 1998.
Note: The grand jury investigation that produced this indictment began in 1996, before the Africa embassy bombings of August of 1998.

https://irp.fas.org/news/1998/11/indict1.pdf

U.S. v. Usama bin Laden, et. al. (2000)
Africa embassy bombings indictment
https://www.justice.gov/archive/usao/nys/pressreleases/October12/ChargingDocs/Bin%20Laden.%20Usama%20S7%20Indictment.pdf

U.S. v. Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, et. al. (2011)
9/11 conspirators indictment
https://www.justice.gov/archive/opa/documents/ksm-indictment.pdf

U.S. v. Zacarias Moussaoui (2001)
https://irp.fas.org/world/para/docs/mous_indict.html


U.S. v. Omar Abdel Rahman, et. al. (1999)
https://caselaw.findlaw.com/court/us-2nd-circuit/1011788.html

U.S. v. Ramzi Ahmed Yousef, et. al. (1996)
https://law.justia.com/cases/federal/district-courts/FSupp/927/673/2092722/

U.S. v. Ramzi Ahmed Yousef, et. al. (1998)
https://caselaw.findlaw.com/court/us-2nd-circuit/1397069.html


Primary Source Documents

Al Qaeda Documents (Combating Terrorism Center at West Point)
https://ctc.westpoint.edu/terrorist-groups/al-qaida-affiliates/?type=primary-sources

Al Qaeda's Structure and Bylaws
https://ctc.westpoint.edu/harmony-program/al-qaidas-structure-and-bylaws-original-language-2/


Al Qaeda Goals and Structure
https://ctc.westpoint.edu/harmony-program/al-qaida-goals-and-structure-original-language-2/

Bin Laden's Bookshelf (Office of the Director of National Intelligence)
https://www.dni.gov/index.php/features/bin-laden-s-bookshelf

Osama bin Laden fatwa, first published in the London newspaper Al Quds Al Arabi in August of 1996
"Declaration of War Against the Americans Occupying the Land of the Two Holy Places"
https://web.archive.org/web/20070108175653/http://www.pbs.org/newshour/terrorism/international/fatwa_1996.html

Osama bin Laden's will and testament (undated, from Nineties)
https://www.dni.gov/files/documents/ubl2016/english/In%20regard%20to%20the%20money%20that%20is%20in%20Sudan.pdf

Transcripts


Osama bin Laden interview with CNN, March 1997.
https://web.archive.org/web/20210609150428/http://www.crono911.net/docs/Arnett1997.pdf
 

Osama bin Laden interview with ABC News, May 1998.
https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/binladen/who/interview.html#video

Osama bin Laden interview with Al Jazeera, October 2001.
http://edition.cnn.com/2002/WORLD/asiapcf/south/02/05/binladen.transcript/

George W. Bush. "Remarks in Sarasota, Florida, on the Terrorist Attack on New York City's World Trade Center." September 11, 2001.
https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/documents/remarks-sarasota-florida-the-terrorist-attack-new-york-citys-world-trade-center

Bill Clinton. “Address to the Nation by the President.” August 20, 1998.

https://clintonwhitehouse6.archives.gov/1998/08/1998-08-20-president-address-to-the-nation.html


Commission on Presidential Debates. “October 17, 2000 Debate Transcript.”

https://www.debates.org/voter-education/debate-transcripts/october-17-2000-debate-transcript/


Commission on Presidential Debates. "October 7, 2008 Debate Transcript."
https://www.debates.org/voter-education/debate-transcripts/october-7-2008-debate-transcrip/

Barack Obama. "Osama bin Laden Dead." May 1, 2011.
https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/blog/2011/05/02/osama-bin-laden-dead


Testimony of Cofer Black before the joint House/Senate Intelligence Committee hearing, September 26, 2002.
https://fas.org/irp/congress/2002_hr/092602black.html

United 93 Cockpit Voice Recorder
https://www.nps.gov/flni/learn/historyculture/flight-93-cockpit-voice-recorder.htm


Podcasts

Long Shadow: 9/11's Lingering Questions (Long Lead/Campside Media/The Trace)

Other

Abu Ubaydah al-Banshiri biography (CTC West Point)
Al Qaeda's founding military commander, who drowned in a deadly ferry accident
on Lake Victoria in May of 1996.
https://ctc.westpoint.edu/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Abu_Ubayda_al-Banshiri.pdf


"Anatomy of a Terrorist Attack: An In-Depth Investigation into the 1998 Bombings of the U.S. Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania" (University of Pittsburgh)
https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/26356/05_anatomy_terr_attack.pdf


Michael Battles. “25 Years Later: Remembering Khobar Towers.” U.S. Air Force. June 25, 2021.

https://www.af.mil/News/Article-Display/Article/2671543/25-years-later-remembering-khobar-towers/


Clark County, Indiana Prosecutor. “Mir Aimal Kasi.”

http://www.clarkprosecutor.org/html/death/US/kasi807.htm


Council on Foreign Relations
https://www.cfr.org

Counter Extremism Project
https://www.counterextremism.com


The Counter-Extremism Project. “Al-Qaeda”
https://www.counterextremism.com/threat/al-qaeda

The Counter-Extremism Project. “Omar Abdel-Rahman”
https://www.counterextremism.com/extremists/omar-abdel-rahman
 
The Counter-Extremism Project. “Ramzi Yousef”
https://www.counterextremism.com/extremists/ramzi-yousef
 
The Counter-Extremism Project. “The NCP in Sudan”
https://www.counterextremism.com/content/ncp-sudan
 

DARPA. “A Selected History of DARPA Innovation.”

https://www.darpa.mil/Timeline/index


Encyclopedia Brittanica. “Al-Mahdi”
https://www.britannica.com/biography/al-Mahdi-Sudanese-religious-leader

Encyclopedia Brittanica. “Sudan”
https://www.britannica.com/place/Sudan


Federation of American Scientists. “Statement by CIA and FBI on Arrest of Mir Aimal Kansi.” June 17, 1997.

https://fas.org/irp/cia/news/pr61797.html


Flight 93 National Memorial
https://www.nps.gov/flni/index.htm

 

Barbara A. Grewe. “Legal Barriers to Information Sharing: The Erection of a Wall Between Intelligence and Law Enforcement Investigations.” August 20, 2004.

https://irp.fas.org/eprint/wall.pdf


In the Footsteps of Bin Laden (CNN)
http://www.cnn.com/services/presents.opk/bin.laden/index.htm


Law Library - American Law and Legal Information. “El Sayyid Nosair Trial: 1991.”

https://law.jrank.org/pages/3497/El-Sayyid-Nosair-Trial-1991.html

William H. McRaven. "The Theory of Special Operations." Naval Postgraduate School, 1993.

https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/citations/ADA269484
 

National 9/11 Pentagon Memorial
https://pentagonmemorial.org/

National September 11 Memorial and Museum
https://www.911memorial.org/

 
The Rendition Project

https://www.therenditionproject.org.uk/about/issues/rendition.html


Rewards for Justice. “Mir Aimal Kansi”

https://rewardsforjustice.net/english/mir_aimal_kansi.html


United States Commission on National Security/21st Century. “New World Coming: American Security in the 21st Century.” September 15, 1999.

https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=2087


United States Marines. “Marine Barracks Bombing at Beirut, Lebanon.” October 22, 2018.
https://www.marines.mil/News/Marines-TV/videoid/634642/dvpTag/Beirut/
 

Richard B. Zabel and James J. Benjamin, Jr. “In Pursuit of Justice: Prosecuting Terrorism Cases in the Federal Courts.” Human Rights First, May 2008.

https://web.archive.org/web/20080617051633/http://www.humanrightsfirst.info/pdf/080521-USLS-pursuit-justice.pdf

bottom of page