Bibliography

This is the list of source material I used in researching Zero Hour: A History of 9/11.

Also, here is a list of what I consider to be the essential texts about 9/11.

Articles

Al Jazeera. “Profile: Omar Suleiman.” July 19, 2012.

https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2012/7/19/profile-omar-suleiman-2

Alexei Alexiev. “Inside the Soviet Army in Afghanistan.” RAND Corporation, May 1988.

https://www.rand.org/pubs/reports/R3627.html

 

All Things Considered. “What a Downed Black Hawk in Somalia Taught America.” NPR, October 5, 2013.

https://www.npr.org/2013/10/05/229561805/what-a-downed-black-hawk-in-somalia-taught-america

Mike Allen. “Rove suspected Gore aide of DUI leak.” Politico, March 4, 2010.

https://www.politico.com/story/2010/03/rove-suspected-gore-aide-of-dui-leak-033946

Amnesty International. “Afghanistan’s refugees: forty years of dispossession.” June 20, 2019.

https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2019/06/afghanistan-refugees-forty-years/

 

Deborah Amos. “30 Years Later, Photos Emerge from Killings in Syria.” NPR, February 2, 2012.

https://www.npr.org/2012/02/01/146235292/30-years-later-photos-emerge-from-killings-in-syria

Scottie Andrew. “How the phrase ‘October surprise’ entered the political lexicon.’ CNN, October 2, 2020.

https://www.cnn.com/2020/10/02/politics/october-surprise-what-is-trnd/index.html

Associated Press. “500 Are Believed Dead as Tanzania Ferry Sinks in Lake Victoria.” May 22, 1996.

https://www.nytimes.com/1996/05/22/world/500-are-believed-dead-as-tanzania-ferry-sinks-in-lake-victoria.html

James Astill. “Osama: the Sudan years.” The Guardian, October 17, 2001.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2001/oct/17/afghanistan.terrorism3

Abdul Bari Atwan. “Inside Osama’s mountain lair.” The Guardian, November 12, 2001.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2001/nov/12/afghanistan.terrorism1

Australian Broadcasting Corporation. “‘Carlos the Jackal’ sentenced to third life term for 1974 attack on Paris shopping arcade.” March 28, 2017.

https://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-03-29/carlos-the-jackal-sentenced-to-life-for-1974-attack/8396054

Michael Battles. “25 Years Later: Remembering Khobar Towers.” U.S. Air Force. June 25, 2021.

https://www.af.mil/News/Article-Display/Article/2671543/25-years-later-remembering-khobar-towers/

BBC News. “What is Sharia and how is it applied?” May 7, 2014.

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-27307249

BBC News. “Chechnya profile – Timeline.” January 17, 2018.

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-18190473

BBC News. “Lake Victoria Tanzania ferry disaster: Survivor found in air pocket.” September 22, 2018.

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-45611436

Daniel Benjamin and Steven Simon. “The New Face of Terrorism.” New York Times, January 4, 2000.

https://www.nytimes.com/2000/01/04/opinion/the-new-face-of-terrorism.html

Peter Bergen. “Five myths about Osama bin Laden.” Washington Post, May 6, 2011.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/five-myths-about-osama-bin-laden/2011/05/05/AFkG1rAG_story.html

 

Peter Bergen. “The cleric who altered the course of modern history.” CNN, February 19, 2017.

https://edition.cnn.com/2017/02/19/opinions/9-11-spiritual-guide-dies-bergen/

Richard Bernstein. “Questioning Focuses on One Defendant.” New York Times, November 11, 1993.

https://www.nytimes.com/1993/11/11/nyregion/questioning-focuses-on-one-defendant.html

Richard Bernstein. “Explosion at the Twin Towers; 4 Are Convicted in Bombing at the World Trade Center That Killed 6, Stunned U.S.” New York Times, March 5, 1994.

https://www.nytimes.com/1994/03/05/nyregion/explosion-twin-towers-4-are-convicted-bombing-world-trade-center-that-killed-6.html

Preeti Bhattacharji. “Chechen Terrorism (Russia, Chechnya, Separatist),” Council on Foreign Relations. April 8, 2010.

https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/chechen-terrorism-russia-chechnya-separatist
 

Barbara Bodine. “9/11 Miniseries Is Bunk.” Los Angeles Times, September 8, 2006.

https://www.latimes.com/news/la-oe-bodine8sep08-story.html

Greg Botelho. “Sudanese Islamist leader, bin Laden ally Hassan al-Turabi dies.” CNN, March 5, 2016.

https://www.cnn.com/2016/03/05/africa/sudan-hassan-al-turabi-dies/

Mark Bowden. “The Legacy of Black Hawk Down.” Smithsonian Magazine, January/February 2019.

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/legacy-black-hawk-down-180971000/

F. Brinley Bruton and Courtney Kube. “Suspected 9/11 Recruiter Mohammed Haymar Zammar captured in Syria,” NBC News, April 19, 2018.

https://www.nbcnews.com/news/world/suspected-9-11-recruiter-mohammed-haydar-zammar-captured-syria-report-n867376

The Business Standard. “Journalist who interviewed Osama bin Laden thrice, and told the tale.” November 2, 2020. 

https://www.tbsnews.net/world/journalist-who-interviewed-osama-bin-laden-thrice-and-told-tale-152788

Amos Chapple. “‘Welcome to Hell, Part II’: The Second Chechen War.” Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, October 1, 2019.

https://www.rferl.org/a/the-second-chechen-war-in-photos/30185257.html

CNN. “U.S. missiles pound targets in Afghanistan, Sudan.” August 21, 1998.

http://www.cnn.com/US/9808/20/us.strikes.02/

 

CNN. “Rescuers search for life in rubble of Nairobi bomb attack.” August 8, 1998.

http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/africa/9808/07/africa.explosions.04/

 

CNN. “Bush acknowledges 1976 DUI charge.” November 2, 2000.

https://www.cnn.com/2000/ALLPOLITICS/stories/11/02/bush.dui/

 

CNN. “Suspect in USS Cole bombing kills self in Yemen.” February 14, 2002.

http://www.cnn.com/2002/WORLD/meast/02/13/yemen.alqaeda/

CNN. “Pakistani man executed for CIA killings.” November 15, 2002.

http://edition.cnn.com/2002/LAW/11/14/cia.killings.execution/index.html

CNN. “Al-Zawahiri: Egyptian militant group joins al Qaeda.” August 5, 2006.

http://edition.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/meast/08/05/zawahiri.tape/index.html

CNN. “Osama bin Laden: Fast Facts.” April 27, 2021.

https://www.cnn.com/2013/08/30/world/osama-bin-laden-fast-facts/index.html

CNN exit poll, 2004 presidential election

https://www.cnn.com/ELECTION/2004/pages/results/states/US/P/00/epolls.0.html

 

Council on Foreign Relations. “The U.S. War in Afghanistan, 1999-2020.”

https://www.cfr.org/timeline/us-war-afghanistan

 

Bette Dam. “The Secret Life of Mullah Omar,” Zomia Center, 2019.

https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5bf5692f4611a019a7c69ea6/t/5c77f4fdeef1a10b17f2abda/1551365379168/Secret+Life+of+Mullah+Omar-FINAL3.pdf

 

Robert M. Danin. “Remembering the Hama Massacre.” Council on Foreign Relations, February 2, 2012.

https://www.cfr.org/blog/remembering-hama-massacre

 

Anusuya Datta. “19 years to 9/11: Satellite images that captured the horrors.” Geospatial World, September 11, 2020.

https://www.geospatialworld.net/blogs/19-years-to-9-11-satellite-images-that-captured-the-horrors/

Karin Davies. “Ferry Disaster Survivors Blame Crew For Overcrowding.” Associated Press, May 23, 1996.

https://apnews.com/article/500bcf1b175176fae7e92727d44a5dab

 

Richard L. Eldredge. “Where are they now? CNN’s Boys of Baghdad.” Atlanta Magazine. March 18, 2015.

https://www.atlantamagazine.com/90s/where-are-they-now-cnns-boys-of-baghdad/

Richard Engel. “Sadat’s Assassination Plotter Remains Unrepentant.” NBC News, July 5, 2011.

https://www.nbcnews.com/id/wbna43640995

 

Richard Ernsberger, Jr. “1983 Beirut barracks bombing: ‘The BLT Building is gone!’ HistoryNet, October 23, 2019.

https://www.marinecorpstimes.com/news/your-marine-corps/2019/10/23/1983-beirut-barracks-bombing-the-blt-building-is-gone/

 

William E. Farrell. “5 Sadat Assassins Executed in Egypt.” New York Times, April 16, 1982.

https://www.nytimes.com/1982/04/16/world/5-sadat-assassins-executed-in-egypt.html

 

Federation of American Scientists. “al-Gama’at al-Islamiyya.” May 3, 2004.

https://fas.org/irp/world/para/ig.htm

 

Federation of American Scientists. “al-Jihad.” May 3, 2004.

https://fas.org/irp/world/para/jihad.htm

Peter Finn, Joby Warrick and Julie Tate. “9/11 planner is recast as key asset for CIA.” Washington Post, August 29, 2009.

https://www.nbcnews.com/id/wbna32605529

Robert Fisk. “Anti-Soviet warrior puts his army on the road to peace.” The Independent, December 6, 1993.

https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/anti-soviet-warrior-puts-his-army-road-peace-saudi-businessman-who-recruited-mujahedin-now-uses-them-large-scale-building-projects-sudan-robert-fisk-met-him-almatig-1465715.html

Robert Fisk. “Arab rebel leaders warns the British: ‘Get out of the Gulf.’” The Independent, July 10, 1996.

https://www.independent.co.uk/news/long_reads/robert-fisk-osama-bin-laden-saudi-arabia-afghanistan-war-b1561291.html

 

Robert Fisk. “Muslim leaders warns of a new assault on US forces.” The Independent, March 22, 1997.

https://www.independent.co.uk/news/muslim-leader-warns-new-assault-us-forces-1274184.html

 

Robert Fisk. “Osama bin Laden: The godfather of terror?” The Independent, September 15, 2001.

https://web.archive.org/web/20110516050620/http://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/profiles/osama-bin-laden-the-godfather-of-terror-751944.html

 

Robert Fisk. “A close encounter with the man who shook the world.” The Independent. October 23, 2011.

https://www.independent.co.uk/voices/commentators/fisk/robert-fisk-close-encounter-man-who-shook-world-2278035.html

Tommy Franks. “War of Words,” New York Times, October 19, 2004.

https://www.nytimes.com/2004/10/19/opinion/war-of-words.html

Joseph P. Fried. “Case of Sheik and 9 Others Is Delivered To the Jury.” New York Times, September 24, 1995.

https://www.nytimes.com/1995/09/24/nyregion/case-of-sheik-and-9-others-is-delivered-to-the-jury.html

 

Joseph P. Fried. “The Terror Conspiracy: The Overview; Sheik And 9 Followers Guilty Of A Conspiracy Of Terrorism.” New York Times. October 2, 1995.

https://www.nytimes.com/1995/10/02/nyregion/terror-conspiracy-overview-sheik-9-followers-guilty-conspiracy-terrorism.html

 

Joseph P. Fried. “Sheikh Sentenced to Life in Prison in Bombing Plot.” New York Times, January 18, 1996.

https://www.nytimes.com/1996/01/18/nyregion/sheik-sentenced-to-life-in-prison-in-bombing-plot.html

 

Joseph P. Fried. “Kevin Thomas Duffy, U.S. Judge in Terrorism Cases, Dies at 87.” New York Times, April 1, 2020.

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/01/nyregion/kevin-thomas-duffy-dead-coronavirus.html

 

Malcolm Gladwell. “N.Y. Bomb Plotters Sentenced to Long Terms.” Washington Post, January 18, 1996.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/10/16/AR2007101600804_pf.html

GlobalSecurity.org. “BGM-109 Tomahawk – Operational Use.”

https://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/bgm-109-operation.htm 

Globalsecurity.org. “FIM-92A Stinger Weapons System: RMP & Basic.”

https://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/ground/stinger.htm

 

Rohan Gunaratna and Aviv Oreg, (2010) “Al Qaeda's Organizational Structure and its Evolution,” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 33: 12, 1043 — 1078.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1057610X.2010.523860

 

Clyde Haberman. “Despite Verdict, Kahane’s Son Says Defendant Deserves Death.” New York Times, December 23, 1991.

https://www.nytimes.com/1991/12/23/nyregion/despite-verdict-kahane-s-son-says-defendant-deserves-death.html

Ashrad Abdul Hamid. “Egypt puts key members of ‘al-Jama’a al-Islamiyya’ on terror list.” Al-Arabiya News, November 11, 2018.

https://english.alarabiya.net/News/middle-east/2018/11/11/Egypt-court-puts-Leaders-members-of-Jemaah-Islamiyah-on-terror-lists

Tore Refslund Hamming. “Al Qaeda After Ayman al-Zawahiri.” Lawfare, April 11, 2021.

https://www.lawfareblog.com/al-qaeda-after-ayman-al-zawahiri

 

Hassan Hassan Twitter thread, November 13, 2020.

https://twitter.com/hxhassan/status/1327310792383983616

 

Andrew Higgins. “The War That Continues to Shape Russia, 25 Years Later.” New York Times, December 10, 2019.

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/12/10/world/europe/photos-chechen-war-russia.html

 

History Channel. “9/11 Timeline.” June 21, 2011.

https://www.history.com/topics/21st-century/9-11-timeline

 

History Channel. “Russian forces enter Chechnya.” July 20, 2010.

https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/yeltsin-orders-russian-forces-into-chechnya

Phil Hirschkorn. “Jury hears day-by-day account of embassy bombings.” CNN. May 2, 2001.

https://www.cnn.com/2001/LAW/05/02/embassy.bombings/index.html

InfoWorld. “Toshiba cuts prices of all notebook lines.” May 2, 1994. Page 33.

https://books.google.com/books?id=hDgEAAAAMBAJ&lpg=PA33

Irish Times, “Bin Laden’s deputy killed by US.” November 17, 2001.

https://www.irishtimes.com/news/bin-laden-s-deputy-killed-by-us-1.337711

Bart Jansen. “10 worst ferry disasters worldwide.” USA Today, April 16, 2014.

https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2014/04/16/ferry-disasters-philippines-senegal-bangladesh-red-sea/7771799/

Douglas Jehl. “C.I.A. Officers Played Role In Sheik Visas.” New York Times, July 22, 1993.

https://www.nytimes.com/1993/07/22/nyregion/cia-officers-played-role-in-sheik-visas.html

 

Randy Kennedy. “Pleas for Mercy, Statements of Defiance.” New York Times, January 18, 1996.

https://www.nytimes.com/1996/01/18/nyregion/pleas-for-mercy-statements-of-defiance.html

Azmat Khan. “Slideshow: An American’s Path to the Mumbai Attacks.” PBS Frontline, November 22, 2011.

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/article/slideshow-an-americans-path-to-the-mumbai-attacks/

 

Azmat Khan. “New Evidence of Pakistan’s Role in the Mumbai Attacks?” PBS Frontline, June 28, 2012.

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/article/new-evidence-of-pakistans-role-in-the-mumbai-attacks/

Zarar Khan. “Hamid Gul dies at 78; former Pakistan intelligence chief.” Los Angeles Times, August 16, 2015.

https://www.latimes.com/local/obituaries/la-me-hamid-gul-20150817-story.html

Stephen P. Klett, Jr. “Toshiba expands its Satellite notebook line.” ComputerWorld. August 30, 1993. Page 41.

https://books.google.com/books?id=KtLsj-XIYpAC

Joseph Krauss. “Sudanese take aim at Islamist ‘deep state’ left by al-Bashir.” Associated Press, May 4, 2019.

https://apnews.com/article/omar-al-bashir-sudan-africa-middle-east-ap-top-news-495dd2ef57f2437da330b643b452acd1

Alan J. Kuperman. “The Stinger Missile and U.S. Intervention in Afghanistan.” Political Science Quarterly 114, no. 2 (1999): 219-63. vxvvxx      1112ew

www.jstor.org/stable/2657738 

Bernard Lewis. “License to Kill: Usama bin Laden’s Declaration of Jihad.” Foreign Affairs, November/December 1998

https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/saudi-arabia/1998-11-01/license-kill-usama-bin-ladins-declaration-jihad

 

Scott MacLeod. “The Paladin of Jihad.” TIME, May 6, 1996. Vol. 147, No. 19.

https://time.com/vault/issue/1996-05-06/page/51/

Dittmar Machule commentary, The Guardian, September 11, 2002.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2002/sep/11/september112002.september1144

 

Mapping Militant Organizations. “Al Jama’a al-Islamiya.” Stanford University. August 1, 2012.

https://web.stanford.edu/group/mappingmilitants/cgi-bin/groups/view/265?highlight=April+19

Jerry Markon. “Capturing Bin Laden on Camera.” Washington Post, July 30, 2008.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/07/29/AR2008072902429.html

Jane Mayer. “Junior.” The New Yorker, September 3, 2006.

https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2006/09/11/junior

Jane Mayer, “The Unidentified Queen of Torture,” The New Yorker. December 18, 2014.

https://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/unidentified-queen-torture
 

Terry McDermott. “The Mastermind: Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and the making of 9/11.” The New Yorker, September 6, 2010.

https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2010/09/13/the-mastermind

Robert D. McFadden. “New Investigations Asked in Wake of Kahane Trial.” New York Times, December 24, 1991.

https://www.nytimes.com/1991/12/24/nyregion/new-investigations-asked-in-wake-of-kahane-trial.html

James C. McKinley Jr. “Two U.S. Embassies in East Africa Bombed.” New York Times, August 8, 1998.

https://www.nytimes.com/library/world/africa/080898africa-bombing.html

Kevin McMurray. “Cofer Black, Out of the Shadows.” Men’s Journal, November 20, 2013.

https://www.mensjournal.com/health-fitness/cofer-black-out-of-the-shadows-20131120/

James Gordon Meek. “FBI's Most Wanted Terrorists 15 Years Later: The Ones Who Got Away.” ABC News, October 25, 2016.

https://abcnews.go.com/International/fbis-wanted-terrorists-15-years/story?id=43028355

Joe Miller. “Clinton Passed on Killing bin Laden?” Factcheck.org, January 18, 2008.

https://www.factcheck.org/2008/01/clinton-passed-on-killing-bin-laden/

John Miller. “Greetings, America. My Name is Osama bin Laden.” Esquire, February 1999.

https://www.esquire.com/news-politics/a1813/osama-bin-laden-interview/

Alison Mitchell. “A Sixth Suspect Charged in Blast.” New York Times, May 7, 1993.

https://www.nytimes.com/1993/05/07/nyregion/a-sixth-suspect-charged-in-blast.html

 

Alison Mitchell. “U.S. Detains Cleric Linked to Militants.” New York Times, July 3, 1993.

https://www.nytimes.com/1993/07/03/us/us-detains-cleric-linked-to-militants.html

Rolf Mowatt-Larsen. “Al Qaeda’s Pursuit of Weapons of Mass Destruction,” Foreign Policy. January 25, 2010.

https://foreignpolicy.com/2010/01/25/al-qaedas-pursuit-of-weapons-of-mass-destruction/

Steven Lee Myers. “U.S. FURY ON 2 CONTINENTS: THE WEAPONS; Dozens of Ship-Launched Cruise Missiles Strike at Same Moment, 2,500 Miles Apart.” New York Times, August 21, 1998.

https://www.nytimes.com/1998/08/21/world/us-fury-2-continents-weapons-dozens-ship-launched-cruise-missiles-strike-same.html

Donovan Myrie and Emilee Speck. “How an Orlando inspector stopped the fifth hijacker on Flight 93.” WKMG ClickOrlando, September 12, 2018.

https://www.clickorlando.com/news/2018/09/12/how-an-orlando-inspector-stopped-the-fifth-hijacker-on-flight-93/

Andrew Natsios. “Behind the Foiled Sudan Coup,” U.S. News & World Report. November 26, 2012.

https://www.usnews.com/opinion/blogs/world-report/2012/11/26/sudans-bashir-government-faces-more-problems-after-failed-coup

NBC News. “Timeline of al-Qaida statements.” April 15, 2004.

https://www.nbcnews.com/id/wbna4686034

 

NBC News. “Al-Qaida leaders, associates.” April 23, 2004.

https://www.nbcnews.com/id/wbna4686491

New York Times. “Specter of Terror: The Suspects; Arrested in Yesterday’s Raid.” June 25, 1993.

https://www.nytimes.com/1993/06/25/nyregion/specter-of-terror-the-suspects-arrested-in-yesterday-s-raid.html

Adam Nossiter, “The Taliban Think They Have Already Won, Peace Deal or Not.” New York Times, March 30, 2021.

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/03/30/world/asia/taliban-victory-afghanistan.html

 

The Observer. “Distant voices, still lives, 08:00-09:35.”

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2002/aug/18/september11.usa3

Mitchell Owens. “Laura and George W. Bush’s House in Texas.” Architectural Digest, August 2014.

https://www.architecturaldigest.com/story/laura-and-george-w-bush-prairie-chapel-ranch-texas-article

 

PBS. “Osama bin Laden: A Chronology of His Political Life.” Frontline, date unknown.

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/binladen/etc/cron.html

 

Tom Perry. “In free Egypt, Jihad leader says time for gun is over.” Reuters, March 18, 2011.

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-egypt-islamist-militancy/in-free-egypt-jihad-leader-says-time-for-gun-is-over-idUSTRE72H62820110318

Todd R. Phinney. “Airpower versus Terrorism: Three Case Studies.” Air University Press, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama. 2003. 

https://media.defense.gov/2017/Dec/27/2001861438/-1/-1/0/T_0009_PHINNEY_AIRPOWER_VERSUS_TERRORISM.PDF

Popular Mechanics. “Debunking the 9/11 Myths: Special Report: The World Trade Center.”

https://www.popularmechanics.com/military/a6384/debunking-911-myths-world-trade-center/

 

Julia Preston. “Omar Abdel Rahman, Blind Cleric Found Guilty of Plot to Wage ‘War of Urban Terrorism,’ Dies at 78.” New York Times, February 18, 2017.

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/18/world/middleeast/omar-abdel-rahman-dead.html

Selwyn Raab. “Jury Acquits Defendant in Kahane Trial.” New York Times, December 22, 1991.

https://www.nytimes.com/1991/12/22/nyregion/jury-acquits-defendant-in-kahane-trial.html

Sudarsan Raghavan. “Alleged architect of U.S. Embassy bombings killed.” Washington Post, June 11, 2011.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/africa/architect-of-us-embassy-bombings-killed/2011/06/11/AG9jgbQH_story.html

 

Bruce Reidel. “Trump’s Saddam: Terror killer or terror patron?” Brookings Institution, July 11, 2016.

https://www.brookings.edu/opinions/trumps-saddam-terror-killer-or-terror-patron/

Reuters. “Factbox: Previous limited U.S. strikes were followed by unforeseen consequences.” September 4, 2013.

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-syria-crisis-consequences-factbox/factbox-previous-limited-u-s-strikes-were-followed-by-unforeseen-consequences-idUSBRE98306O20130904

Reuters. “Sudan’s former PM Sadiq al-Mahdi dies from coronavirus.” November 25, 2020.

https://www.reuters.com/article/uk-sudan-politics-idUKKBN28604W

Brian Ross and David Scott. “Qatari Royal Family Linked to Al Qaeda.” ABC News, January 7, 2006.

https://abcnews.go.com/WNT/story?id=129838&page=1

Sebastian Rotella. “Trial Testimony Intensifies Allegations Pakistan Is Playing Double Game.” ProPublica, May 23, 2011.

https://www.propublica.org/article/chicago-trial-focuses-on-pakistans-role-in-terrorism

Lily Rothman. “How TIME Secured Its First Interview with Osama bin Laden.” TIME, November 24, 2014.

https://time.com/3598204/osama-bin-laden-history/

Peter Rutland. “Putin’s Path to Power.” Post-Soviet Affairs, vol. 16, no.4, December 2000, pp. 313-54.

http://prutland.faculty.wesleyan.edu/files/2015/08/Putins-path-to-power.pdf

Mark Schone and Rehab El-Buri, “Fort Hood: Hasan Asked Awlaki If It Was Okay to Kill American Soldiers.” ABC News,  December 23, 2009.

https://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/FtHoodInvestigation/fort-hood-hasan-asked-awlaki-kill-american-soldiers/story?id=9410718

Michael Slackman, “Bin Laden kin worry about terrorist’s wife, children,” Los Angeles Times, November 13, 2001.

https://www.chicagotribune.com/sns-worldtrade-binladen-family-lat-story.html

 

Hussain Shaheed Soherwordi. “Pakistan-US Policies on the ‘War on Terror’ and the Taliban: Allies at Loggerheads.” Pakistan Horizon 63, no. 2 (2010): 51-67. http://www.jstor.org/stable/24711085

 

Mike Sims. “Transcript: The Yasin Interview.” 60 Minutes. June 2, 2002.

https://www.cbsnews.com/news/transcript-the-yasin-interview/

Tim Skoog, Meghna Chakrabarti and Dorey Scheimer. “First Person: The CIA’s Former Counterterrorism Chief on the Lead Up to 9/11.” WBUR, October 13, 2020.

https://www.wbur.org/onpoint/2020/10/13/radio-diary-cofer-black

Vivian Elizabeth Smyrl. “Crawford, TX,” Texas State Historical Association.

https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/crawford-tx

Missy Sullivan and Sydney Trattner. “This Man Helped Thwart the Biggest Terror Arrack That Almost Happened.” History Channel, September 11, 2017.

https://www.history.com/news/this-man-helped-thwart-the-biggest-terror-attack-that-almost-happened

Ronald Sullivan. “Judge Gives Maximum Term in Kahane Case.” New York Times, January 30, 1992.

https://www.nytimes.com/1992/01/30/nyregion/judge-gives-maximum-term-in-kahane-case.html

Liz Sly, “This is the man who recruited the 9/11 hijackers.” Washington Post, November 30, 2018.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/world/wp/2018/11/30/feature/this-is-the-man-who-recruited-the-9-11-hijackers/

Philip Taubman, “Soviet Lists Afghan War Toll: 13,310 Dead, 35,478 Wounded.” New York Times, May 26, 1988.

https://www.nytimes.com/1988/05/26/world/soviet-lists-afghan-war-toll-13310-dead-35478-wounded.html

 

Bernard W. Tate. “Pentagon survivors tell their stories.” Army.mil. August 20, 2012.

https://www.army.mil/article/65490/pentagon_survivors_tell_their_stories

Magnus Taylor. “Hassan al-Turabi’s Islamist Legacy in Sudan.” International Crisis Group, March 10, 2016.

https://www.crisisgroup.org/africa/horn-africa/sudan/hassan-al-turabi-s-islamist-legacy-sudan

Bill Trott. “‘Blind sheikh’ convicted in 1993 World Trade bombing dies in U.S. prison.” Reuters, February 18, 2017.

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-tradecenter-rahman/blind-sheikh-convicted-in-1993-world-trade-bombing-dies-in-u-s-prison-idUSKBN15X0KU

Craig Turner. “Egypt’s Leader Survives Assassination Attempt : Africa: Muslim extremists suspected in attack on Mubarak’s motorcade in Ethiopia. President is unharmed.” Los Angeles Times, June 27, 1995.

https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1995-06-27-mn-17703-story.html

University of Pittsburgh. “Anatomy of a Terrorist Attack: An In-Depth Investigation into the 1998 Bombings of the U.S. Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania.” Spring 2005. 

https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/26356/05_anatomy_terr_attack.pdf

Karl Vick. “Nairobi Rescuers Search for Signs of Life.” Washington Post, August 9, 1998.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/inatl/longterm/eafricabombing/stories/nairobi080998.htm

Marcus Walker and James M. Dorsey. “A Student’s Dreams or a Terrorist’s Plot?” Wall Street Journal, September 18, 2001.

https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB1000774372551721800

Katie Walmsley, “9/11 Anniversary: Survivor Reflects on Escaping Death.” ABC News. September 9, 2011.

https://abcnews.go.com/US/September_11/911-anniversary-survivor-reflects-escaping-death/story?id=14479161

Declan Walsh. “Three Decades After His Coup, Sudan’s Former Ruler Is Held to Account.” New York Times, July 21, 2020.

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/21/world/africa/sudan-omar-hassan-al-bashir-coup-trial.html

Washington Post. “Dar Es Salaam Bombing Map.”

https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/inatl/longterm/eafricabombing/maps/salaammap.htm

 

Washington Post. “Nairobi Bombing Map.”

https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/inatl/longterm/eafricabombing/maps/nairobimap.htm

Benjamin Weiser. “Prosecutors Are Expected to Seek Dismissal of Charges Against Bin Laden.” New York Times, May 3, 2011.

https://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/04/nyregion/with-bin-ladens-death-seeking-the-dismissal-of-all-charges.html

Craig Whitlock. “Probe of USS Cole Bombing Unravels.” Washington Post, May 4, 2008.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/05/03/AR2008050302047.html

Christopher Woody, “‘A fighting war with the main enemy’: How the CIA helped land a mortal blow to the Soviets in Afghanistan 32 years ago,” Business Insider, October 2, 2018.

https://www.businessinsider.com/32-year-anniversary-of-first-stinger-missile-use-in-afghanistan-2018-9

Christopher S. Wren. “U.S. Jury Convicts 3 in a Conspiracy to Bomb Airliners.” New York Times, September 6, 1996.

https://www.nytimes.com/1996/09/06/nyregion/us-jury-convicts-3-in-a-conspiracy-to-bomb-airliners.html

Lawrence Wright, “The Counter-Terrorist.” The New Yorker, January 6, 2002.

https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2002/01/14/the-counter-terrorist

Lawrence Wright, “The Agent,” The New Yorker. July 10, 2006.

https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2006/07/10/the-agent

Robin Wright and John-Thor Dahlburg. “Legwork, Luck Closed Net Around Bombing Suspect : Manhunt: A mysterious informer’s tip capped an intense search for alleged mastermind of trade center blast.” Los Angeles Times, February 12, 1995.

https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1995-02-12-mn-31228-story.html

Micah Zenko. “When Reagan Cut and Run.” Foreign Policy, February 7, 2014.

https://foreignpolicy.com/2014/02/07/when-reagan-cut-and-run/

Books

Abdullah Anas with Tam Hussein. To the Mountains: My Life in Jihad, from Algeria to Afghanistan. (London: Hurst & Company, 2019)

Abdel Bari Atwan. The Secret History of Al Qaeda. (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2006)

 

Peter Baker. Days of Fire: Bush and Cheney in the White House. (New York: Anchor Books, 2013)

Milt Bearden and James Risen. The Main Enemy: The Inside Story of the CIA's Final Showdown with the KGB. (New York: Random House, 2003)

Peter L. Bergen. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden. (New York: Touchstone, 2001)

 

Peter L. Bergen. The Osama bin Laden I Know: An Oral History of Al Qaeda’s Leader. (New York: Free Press, 2006)

 

Peter L. Bergen. The Longest War: The Enduring Conflict Between America and Al-Qaeda. (New York: Free Press, 2011)

 

Peter L. Bergen. Manhunt: The Ten-Year Search for Bin Laden from 9/11 to Abbottabad. (New York: Crown Publishers, 2012)

Peter L. Bergen. The Rise and Fall of Osama bin Laden. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2021)

 

Omar bin Laden, Najwa bin Laden, Jean Sasson. Growing Up bin Laden: Osama’s Wife and Son Take Us Inside Their Secret World. (New York: St. Martin's Publishing Group, 2009)

 

Mark Bowden. Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War. (New York: Grove Press, 1999)

Mark Bowden. The Finish: The Killing of Osama bin Laden. (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2012)

George W. Bush. Decision Points. (New York: Crown Publishers, 2010)

Daniel Byman. Al Qaeda, the Islamic State, and the Global Jihadist Movement: What Everyone Needs to Know. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2015)

Gerard Chaliand and Arnaud Blin. (Eds.) The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to Al Qaeda. (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2007)

Richard A. Clarke. Against All Enemies: Inside America’s War on Terror. (New York: Free Press, 2004)

Steve Coll. Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan and Bin Laden from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001. (New York: Penguin Press, 2004)

 

Steve Coll. The Bin Ladens: An Arabian Family in the American Century. (New York: Penguin Books, 2008)

 

David Dunbar and Brad Reagan, eds. Debunking 9/11 Myths: Why Conspiracy Theories Can't Stand Up to the Facts. (New York: Hearst Books, 2011)

Jim Dwyer and Kevin Flynn. 102 Minutes: The Unforgettable Story of the Fight to Survive Inside the Twin Towers. (New York: Times Books, 2005)

Barton Gellman. Angler: The Cheney Vice Presidency. (New York: Penguin Press, 2008)

Fawaz A. Gerges. The Far Enemy: Why Jihad Went Global. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005)

Fawaz A. Gerges. The Rise and Fall of Al-Qaeda. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011)

Garrett M. Graaf. The Only Plane in the Sky: An Oral History of 9/11. (New York: Avid Reader Press, 2019)

Marcela Grad. Massoud: An Intimate Portrait of the Legendary Afghan Leader. (New York: Webster University Press, 2009)

Robert L. Grenier. 88 Days to Kandahar: A CIA Diary. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015)

Imtiaz Gul. The Most Dangerous Place: Pakistan's Lawless Frontier. (New York: Penguin Group, 2010)

Rohan Gunaratna. Inside Al Qaeda: Global Network of Terror. (New York: Penguin Group, 2002)

Rohan Gunaratna and Khuram Iqbal. Pakistan: Terrorism Ground Zero. (London: Reaktion Books, 2011)

Mustafa Hamid and Leah Farrall. The Arabs at War in Afghanistan. (London: Hurst & Company, 2015)

Thomas Hegghammer. The Caravan: Abdallah Azzam and the Rise of Global Jihad. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020)

Bruce Hoffman. Inside Terrorism. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2006)

 

Raymond Ibrahim (ed.). The Al Qaeda Reader. (New York: Broadway Books, 2007)

 

Jane Mayer. The Dark Side: The Inside Story of How the War on Terror Turned into a War on American Ideals. (New York: Doubleday, 2008)

Terry McDermott. Perfect Soldiers: The Hijackers: Who They Were, Why They Did It. (New York: Harper Collins, 2005)

 

Terry McDermott and Josh Meyer. The Hunt for KSM: Inside the Pursuit and Takedown of the Real 9/11 Mastermind (New York: Little Brown and Company, 2012)

 

Michael Morrell with Bill Harlow. The Great War of Our Time: The CIA’s Fight Against Terrorism from Al Qa’ida to ISIS. (New York: Twelve, 2015)

 

Barack Obama. A Promised Land. (New York: Crown, 2020)

 

Robert A. Pape. Dying to Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism. (New York: Random House, 2005)

 

Gary Berntsen and Ralph Pezzullo. Jawbreaker: The Attack on Bin Laden and Al-Qaeda: A Personal Account by the CIA's Key Field Commander. (New York: Crown Publishers, 2005)

Joseph Pfeifer. Ordinary Heroes: A Memoir of 9/11. (New York: Portfolio/Penguin, 2021)

Jonathan Randal. Osama: The Making of a Terrorist. (New York: Random House, 2004)

Simon Reeve. The New Jackals: Ramzi Yousef, Osama bin Laden and the Future of Terrorism. (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1999)

Bruce Reidel. Deadly Embrace: Pakistan, America and the Future of the Global Jihad. (Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2011)

Michael Scheuer. Osama bin Laden. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011).

Gary C. Schroen. First In: An Insider's Account of How the CIA Spearheaded the War on Terror in Afghanistan. (New York: Random House, 2005)

Cathy Scott-Clark and Adrian Levy. The Exile: The Stunning Inside Story of Osama bin Laden and Al-Qaeda in Flight. (New York: Bloomsbury, 2017)

 

Ali H. Soufan, with Daniel Freedman. The Black Banners: The Inside Story of 9/11 and the War Against Al Qaeda. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2011)

 

Ali Soufan. Anatomy of Terror: From the Death of bin Laden to the Rise of the Islamic State. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2017)

George Tenet with Bill Harlow. At the Center of the Storm: My Years at the CIA. (New York: HarperCollins, 2007)

Joby Warrick. The Triple Agent: The Al-Qaeda Mole Who Infiltrated the CIA. (New York: Penguin RandomHouse, 2011)

Joby Warrick. Black Flags: The Rise of ISIS. (New York: Doubleday, 2015)

Tim Weiner. Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA. (New York: Random House, 2007)

Tim Weiner. Enemies: A History of the FBI. (New York: Random House, 2012)

Murray Weiss. The Man Who Warned America: The Life and Death of John O'Neill, the FBI's Embattled Counterterror Warrior. (New York: HarperCollins, 2003)

Bob Woodward. Bush at War. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002)

 

Bob Woodward. Plan of Attack. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004) 

 

Bob Woodward. Obama’s Wars. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2010)

 

Lawrence Wright. The Looming Tower: Al Qaeda and the Road to 9/11. (New York: Vintage Books, 2006)

Lawrence Wright. The Terror Years. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2016)

Government Documents and Reports

The 9/11 Commission Report

http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/index.htm

9/11 Commission, Staff Statement No. 16. “Outline of the 9/11 Plot.”

https://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/staff_statements/staff_statement_16.pdf

Central Intelligence Agency. “Fatwas or Religious Rulings by Militant Islamic Groups Against the United States.” February 23, 1998.

https://tinyurl.com/59w3c7sp

Central Intelligence Agency. “Afghanistan Camps Central to 11 September Plot: Can Al-Qa’ida Train on the Run?” June 20, 2003.

https://www.documentcloud.org/documents/369179-2003-06-20-afghanistan-camps-central-to-11.html

FBI Vault. “Osama bin Laden”

https://vault.fbi.gov/osama-bin-laden

State Department. “Foreign Terrorist Organizations: Gama'a al-Islamiyya.” September 19, 2018.

https://www.refworld.org/docid/5bcf1f4ba.html

Documentaries, Films and Series

9/11 (CNN Films)

 

9/11: Inside the Pentagon (PBS)

9/11: One Day in America (Hulu)

Ambush in Mogadishu (PBS)

Days That Shaped America (History)

Inside the Terror Network (PBS)

Manhunt: The Inside Story of the Hunt for Bin Laden (HBO)

 

Race Against Time: The CIA and 9/11 (CBS)

Road to 9/11 (History)

 

Revealed: The Hunt for bin Laden (History)

 

The Looming Tower (Hulu)

 

The Man Who Knew (PBS)

The Spymasters: CIA in the Crosshairs (CBS News)

Turning Point: 9/11 and the War on Terror (Netflix)

World Trade Center (Paramount Pictures)

 

Zero Dark Thirty (Sony Pictures)

Legal Documents

United States v. Jamal al-Badawi and Fahd al-Quso grand jury indictment

(2003 - USS Cole)

https://www-tc.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/knew/etc/coleindict1.pdf

United States v. Rahman, et. al. August 16, 1999.

https://caselaw.findlaw.com/us-2nd-circuit/1011788.html

 

United States v. Ressam. May 4, 2012.

https://casetext.com/case/united-states-v-ressam-2

United States v. Usama bin Laden sealed grand jury indictment (1996)

https://irp.fas.org/news/1998/11/indict1.pdf

United States v. Usama bin Laden superseding grand jury indictment (1998)

https://fas.org/irp/news/1998/11/98110602_nlt.html

United States v. Usama bin Laden, et. al. grand jury indictment (2000 - Africa embassy bombings)

https://www.documentcloud.org/documents/802160-indict

United States v. Yousef, et.al. April 4, 2003.

http://uniset.ca/other/cs5/327F3d56.html
 

Online Resources

Carfax. “VIN Decoder & VIN Lookup.”

https://www.carfax.com/company/vehicle-identification-numbers-vins

CIA Memo to Sudanese Major General Elfatih Erwa, delivered on March 8, 1996.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/nation/specials/attacked/transcripts/sudanmemotext_100301.html

CIA World Factbook, “Afghanistan.”

https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/afghanistan/

 

CIA World Factbook, “Egypt.”

https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/egypt/

 

CIA World Factbook, “Kenya.”

https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/kenya/

 

CIA World Factbook, “Pakistan.”

https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/pakistan/

 

CIA World Factbook. “Saudi Arabia.”

https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/saudi-arabia/

 

CIA World Factbook. “Sudan.”

https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/sudan/

 

CIA World Factbook. “Tanzania.”

https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/tanzania/

 

CIA World Factbook. “Yemen.”

https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/yemen/

The Counter-Extremism Project: Al-Qaeda

https://www.counterextremism.com/threat/al-qaeda

The Counter-Extremism Project. “Omar Abdel-Rahman”

https://www.counterextremism.com/extremists/omar-abdel-rahman

 

The Counter-Extremism Project. “Ramzi Yousef”

https://www.counterextremism.com/extremists/ramzi-yousef

 

The Counter-Extremism Project. “The NCP in Sudan”

https://www.counterextremism.com/content/ncp-sudan

 

Encyclopedia Brittanica. “Al-Mahdi”

https://www.britannica.com/biography/al-Mahdi-Sudanese-religious-leader

 

Encyclopedia Brittanica. “Sudan”

https://www.britannica.com/place/Sudan

 

FBI “9/11 Investigation”

https://www.fbi.gov/history/famous-cases/911-investigation

 

FBI “East African Embassy Bombings”

https://www.fbi.gov/history/famous-cases/east-african-embassy-bombings

 

FBI “Millennium Plot / Ahmed Ressam”

https://www.fbi.gov/history/famous-cases/millennium-plot-ahmed-ressam

 

FBI “USS Cole Bombing”

https://www.fbi.gov/history/famous-cases/uss-cole-bombing

 

FBI “World Trade Center Bombing 1993”

https://www.fbi.gov/history/famous-cases/world-trade-center-bombing-1993

Federation of American Scientists. “Statement by CIA and FBI on Arrest of Mir Aimal Kansi.” June 17, 1997.

https://fas.org/irp/cia/news/pr61797.html

Guinness World Records, “Operation Cyclone.”

https://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/613906-most-expensive-covert-action

Law Library - American Law and Legal Information. “El Sayyid Nosair Trial: 1991.”

https://law.jrank.org/pages/3497/El-Sayyid-Nosair-Trial-1991.html

 

Legal Information Institution. “Miranda Warning.”

https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/miranda_warning

The Rendition Project

https://www.therenditionproject.org.uk/about/issues/rendition.html

 

Rewards for Justice. “Mir Aimal Kansi”

https://rewardsforjustice.net/english/mir_aimal_kansi.html

Statement by J. Gilmore Childers, Esq. and Henry J. DePippo, Esq. “Foreign Terrorists in America: Five Years After the World Trade Center.” Senate Judiciary Committee, Subcommittee on Technology, Terrorism and Government Information.  February 24, 1998.

https://fas.org/irp/congress/1998_hr/s980224c.htm

Testimony of Cofer Black before the joint House/Senate Intelligence Committee hearing, September 26, 2002.

https://fas.org/irp/congress/2002_hr/092602black.html

                      

Transcript of Osama bin Laden interview with ABC News, May 1998.

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/binladen/who/interview.html#video

 

United States Marines. “Marine Barracks Bombing at Beirut, Lebanon.” October 22, 2018.

https://www.marines.mil/News/Marines-TV/videoid/634642/dvpTag/Beirut/

Primary Documents

IntelWire: Minutes of Al Qaeda’s founding meetings, 1988.

http://intelfiles.egoplex.com/1988-08-11-al-qaeda-founding.pdf

Combating Terrorism Center: Al Qaeda’s Structure and Bylaws

https://ctc.usma.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Al-Qa%E2%80%99ida%E2%80%99s-Structure-and-Bylaws-Translation1.pdf

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